The many forms of Louis and Louisa

Louis was a Top 100 name in the U.S. from 1880–1959, with a peak of #18 in 1882. It gradually began falling in popularity during the 1920s, and fell out of the Top 50 in 1942. In 2009, it reached its lowest rank of #353. In 2016, it was #289.

Louis is the French form of Ludovicus, which in turn is the Latinized form of the German Ludwig. Its ultimate origin is the Old Germanic Chlodovech, which is composed of the elements hlud (famous) and wig (battle, war).

Louisa likewise has seen much more popular days, though it was never close to as popular as Louis. Its highest rank was #119 in 1881, and its final year in the Top 1000 was 1969, when it was #954. It only re-entered in 2014, at #971. By 2016, it was #825.

The French and English variant form Louise has historically been more popular than Louisa. It was in the Top 100 from 1880–1948, with the highest rank of #17, from 1912–14. Like its counterparts, it gradually began sinking, and fell out of the Top 1000 in 1988. It re-entered in 1990, fell out again in 1992, and had another re-entrance in 2016, at #895.

Louise is much more popular in France (#1) and Belgium (#2). It’s also fairly popular in Norway (#75), Switzerland (#73), and The Netherlands (#101). Louis also enjoys more popularity outside the U.S. It’s #1 in Belgium, #4 in France, #12 in Switzerland, #59 in Australia, #71 in England and Wales, and #82 in New Zealand.

Other forms of these names include:

Male:

1. Ludwik is Polish.

2. Ludwig is German.

3. Ludvig is Scandinavian, with the nickname Ludde.

4. Ludoviko is Esperanto, with the nickname Lučjo.

5. Lodewijk is Dutch, with nicknames including Ludo and Lowie.

6. Loïc is Breton and French.

7. Ludovico is Italian.

8. Lodovico is an Italian variant.

9. Ludis is Latvian.

10. Ludvigs is also Latvian.

11. Liudvikas is Lithuanian.

12. Lluís is Catalan.

13. Luis is Spanish, with the nickname Lucho. The variant Luís is Portuguese.

14. Lúðvík is Icelandic. The alternate form Ludvík is Czech, with the nickname Luděk.

15. Loís is Occitan. The variant Lois is Galician.

16. Ludovic is French.

17. Luigi is Italian, with nicknames including Gino and Luigino.

18. Luiz is Brazilian–Portuguese.

19. Lodosis is Aragonese.

20. Loeiz is Breton.

21. Loudovikos is a rare Greek form.

22. Loys is Gascon.

23. Lûíse is Greenlandic.

24. Lujo is Croatian.

25. Luui is Greenlandic.

26. Lüwi is Alsatian.

27. Koldobika is Basque, with the nickname Koldo.

28. Alajos is Hungarian.

29. Alojz is Slovak, Slovenian, and Croatian. The Slovenian nickname is Lojze.

30. Alojzij is Slovenian.

31. Alojzije is Croatian.

32. Aloysius is the Latinized form of Aloys, an archaic Occitan form of Louis.

33. Alois is German and Czech.

34. Alojzy is Polish.

35. Aloisio is Italian.

36. Alvise is Venetian.

37. Aloísio is Portuguese.

38. Alaois is Irish.

39. Aloxi is Basque.

40. Rewi is Maori.

41. Ruihi is also Maori.

42. Lajos is Hungarian.

Female:

1. Luisa is Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Czech, Slovak, German, Dutch, and Croatian. The variant Luísa is Portuguese.

2. Luiza is Russian, Romanian, Polish, and Brazilian–Portuguese.

3. Lujza is Hungarian and Slovak.

4. Louiza is Greek.

5. Liudvika is Lithuanian.

6. Loviise is Estonian.

7. Lovise is Norwegian and Danish.

8. Lovisa is Swedish.

9. Lluïsa is Catalan.

10. Ludwika is Polish.

11. Loviisa is Finnish.

12. Ludovica is Italian.

13. Luigia is also Italian, with nicknames including Gina and Luigina.

14. Luise is German.

15. Alojzia is Slovak.

16. Aloiziya is Bulgarian.

17. Alojzija is Slovenian and Croatian.

18. Lavīze is a rare Latvian form.

19. Loeiza is Breton.

20. Loïsa is Occitan.

21. Loisa is Galician.

22. Ludovique is a rare French form.

23. Luīze is Latvian.

24. Lüwiss is Alsatian.

25. Ruiha is Maori.

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Olive names

Oliver has barreled up the U.S. charts in recent years, going from #173 in 2006 to #12 in 2016. The name is #1 in Canada, England and Wales, New Zealand, and Australia. It’s also very popular in Denmark (#4), Finland (#5), Norway (#2), Sweden (#7), Scotland (#3), Iceland (#6), Northern Ireland (#6), Hungary (#21), Ireland (#31), Galicia (#40), and the Czech Republic (#33).

The alternate form Olivér is Hungarian, and Ólíver, or Óliver, is Icelandic.

Olivia has likewise barreled up the U.S. charts, going from #248 in 1985 to a so far three-year reign as #2 from 2014–16. Olive, not too long ago largely written off as a musty old lady name, may be poised to become a replacement for Olivia, the way Jessica supplanted Jennifer and Amelia supplanted Emma supplanted Emily. It fell off the U.S. charts in 1951, and re-entered at #989 in 2007. In 2016, it was #272, while in Australia, it was #90, and in New Zealand, it was #43. In England and Wales, it was #176.

The alternate form Olívia is Hungarian, Slovak, and Portuguese. Ólivía is Icelandic.

There are several possible etymologies for Olivia, among them the possible connection to the Latin word oliva (olive). And though Oliver comes from either an Old Germanic name like Alfher (elf army, elf warrior) or an Old Norse name like Áleifr (ancestor’s descendant; the original form of Olaf), the spelling came to be changed by association with the Latin word oliva.

If the trendiness and popularity of those names puts you off, there are plenty of other forms of these names.

Male:

Oilibhéar is Irish.

Oliber is Gascon. This spelling is considered archaic today.

Ólivar is Faroese.

Oliverio is Latin American–Spanish.

Olivers is Latvian.

Olivey is modern Gascon.

Olivier is French and Dutch.

Oliviero is Italian.

Olivur is Faroese.

Oliwer is Polish.

Oliwier is an alternate Polish form.

Oliwjer is also Polish.

Ölu is Swiss–German.

Female:

Moria was the word for a sacred olive tree in Ancient Greek.

Oliivia is Estonian.

Oliva is Latin.

Olivera is Serbian, Macedonian, and Croatian.

Olivette is French, from the title character of Edmond Audran’s 1879 opera Les Noces d’Olivette.

Oliviana is English, Spanish, and Italian.

Olivie is French and Czech. In Czech, the last two letters are pronounced separately instead of as one.

Olivienne is English.

Oliviera is Italian.

Oliviette is English.

Olivija is Macedonian, Lithuanian, and Croatian. The alternate form Olīvija is Latvian.

Olivina is Faroese.

Oliviya is Bulgarian.

Oliwia is Polish.

Ouliva is Asturian, a language spoken in northern Spain.

The various forms of Roger (Happy Duran Duran Appreciation Day!)

To mark this special holiday (which is very much real), and because Roger is my favourite member of the band, I thought I’d do a post about the name Roger. This isn’t a name I used to have a high opinion of (since at least when I was younger, it frequently seemed to be given to characters who were bullies and thugs), but I’ve really grown to love the name.

Roger was on the Top 100 in the U.S. from 1921–75, and the Top 50 from 1932–62 and again in 1964 and 1965. It attained its highest rank of #22 in 1945. The name has steadily plummeted in popularity, and was down to #643 in 2016. The alternate spelling Rodger, always less popular, last charted at #921 in 1985.

Roger is used in English, French, the Scandinavian languages, Catalan, Dutch, and German. It means “famous spear,” from the Old Germanic elements hrod (fame) and ger (spear). The name came to England after the Norman conquest of 1066 and the resulting occupation. It replaced the Old English Hroðgar (Hrothgar), which was the name of the legendary Danish king featured in Beowulf.

During the Middle Ages, Roger was a common name in England, though had become rare by the 18th century. Later on, it enjoyed a resurgence in popularity.

Other forms include:

1. Ruggieri is Medieval Italian.

2. Ruggiero is modern Italian.

3. Ruggero is an alternate Italian form.

4. Rogel is Spanish.

5. Rüdiger is German. The parents of my character Roger Brandt-van Acker wanted to name their son this name instead, after his great-great-uncle, but they were pressured into choosing the English form.

6. Rutger is Dutch and Limburgish. The Limburgish nickname is Ruth.

7. Rogier is also Dutch.

8. Rogério is Portuguese.

9. Roar is Norwegian, and obviously not a name I’d recommend in an Anglophone country.

10. Hrodger is the original Ancient Germanic form.

11. Hróarr is Old Norse.

12. Hróðgeirr is also Old Norse.

13. Dodge is a Medieval English nickname.

14. Hodge is another Medieval English nickname, spelt such because of the way in which the English mispronounced the occupying Normans’ R.

15. Roschi is Alsatian.

16. Ruđer is Croatian.

The many forms of Irene

Irene was #102 when name popularity data began being tracked in 1880, and entered the Top 100 in 1883, at #99. It entered the Top 50 in 1894, at #43, and rose to #30 in 1900. In 1906, it was #20, and rose and fell slightly until 1915, when it entered the Top 20, at #17. Until 1925, it remained in the lower reaches of the Top 20, and it stayed in the Top 100, steadily sliding lower each year, until 1945. Ever since, the name has continued sinking in popularity. In 2016, it was #656.

Though many people think of Irene as an old lady name, I’ve never seen it as musty and geriatric. Unlike, e.g., Mildred, it was never a Top 10 name, followed by an extremely sharp decline and eventually falling off the charts. Irene has remained in regular enough use over the decades, even if its greatest popularity is long in the past.

The spelling Irene is used in English, German, the Scandinavian languages, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Finnish. The variation Irène is French; Irēna is Latvian; and Ireñe is Basque. Other forms include:

1. Irina is Russian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Georgian, Romanian, and Finnish. Russian nicknames include Irisha, Irinushka, Ira, Irusya, Ina, Rina, Irunya, and Irya.

2. Arina is an alternate Russian form.

3. Irena is Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovenian, Dutch, Lithuanian, Romanian, Italian, German, Icelandic, Scandinavian, and Croatian. Many people are familiar with the heroic story of Irena Sendler, who saved 2,500 Jewish children from the Warsaw Ghetto.

4. Eirene is Ancient Greek.

5. Irén is Hungarian, with the nickname Iri.

6. Eireen is Irish.

7. Iryna is Ukrainian.

8. Irine is Georgian.

9. Iria is Galician and Portuguese.

10. Bakene is a modern, rare Basque form.

11. Erea is Galician.

12. Erina is Swiss–Italian.

13. Irea is Galician.

14. Ireene is Estonian.

15. Irenea is Italian and Spanish.

16. Irenia is an elaborated English and Latin American–Spanish form.

17. Irinæ is Ossetian.

18. Eirini is modern Greek.

19. Ereni is also Greek.

20. Iriana is an elaborated English form.

21. Irini is Romanian.

22. Jerina is a rare Serbian form.

The many forms of Daniel

Daniel has been a steadily popular Top 60 name in the U.S. since at least 1880. Its lowest rank was #55, from 1914–16. It entered the Top 20 in 1952, and in spite of a somewhat fluctuating rank, eventually entered the Top 10. Its highest rank was #5, which it held in 1985, 1990, 2007, and 2008. In 2016, it was #13.

It’s also popular in Romania (#9), Spain (#2), Ireland (#3), Galicia (#5), Hungary (#8), Finland (#10), the Czech Republic (#12), Iceland (#10), Catalonia (#13), Austria (#26), Canada (#23), England and Wales (#24), Australia (#29), Chile (#33), Italy (#41), Mexico (#12), New Zealand (#28), Norway (#17), Scotland (#18), Northern Ireland (#5), Croatia (#63), Switzerland (#39), Portugal (#31), and Poland (#55).

The spelling Daniel is used in English, French, German, the Scandinavian languages, Romanian, Hebrew, Portuguese, Armenian, Georgian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian, Spanish, and Croatian. The variant Dániel is Hungarian and Faroese; Daníel is Icelandic; and Daniël is Dutch.

Other forms include:

1. Daniyel is the original Hebrew form, and means “God is my judge.”

2. Daniil is Russian, with the nickname Danya.

3. Danilo is Slovenian, Serbian, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Montenegrin, and Croatian.

4. Daniele is Italian.

5. Danijel is Serbian, Slovenian, and Croatian.

6. Danyal is Persian, Urdu, Arabic, and Turkish.

7. Taniel is Western Armenian.

8. Danielius is Lithuanian.

9. Daniels is Latvian.

10. Dánjal is Faroese.

11. Deniel is Breton.

12. Danail is Bulgarian. The nickname is Dancho.

13. Taneli is Finnish. The nickname is Tatu.

14. Deiniol is Welsh.

15. Taaniel is Estonian.

16. Tanel is also Estonian.

17. Tâniale is Greenlandic.

18. Daaniel is Estonian.

19. Dainéil is Irish.

20. Dánial is Faroese.

21. Daniello is Italian.

22. Danielo is Latin American–Spanish.

23. Danilbek is Chechen, and means “Lord Daniel.”

24. Danilis is modern Greek.

25. Danilos is also Greek.

26. Daniyal is Kazakh and Pakistani.

27. Dänu is Swiss–German.

28. Danyil is Ukrainian.

29. Danila is Belarusian.

30. Daniley is also Belarusian.

31. Danylo is Ukrainian.

32. Kaniela is Hawaiian.

33. Rāniera is Maori.