The many forms of Gabriel and Gabriella

Gabriel entered the U.S. Top 100 in 1976, at #81, and stayed near the lower reaches of the chart till falling out in 1988. It re-entered at #82 in 1991, and began steadily climbing up the charts. Its highest position to date has been #21, in 2010. As of 2016, it was #25.

The name is also rather popular in France (#1), Switzerland (#4), Romania (#4), Belgium (#11), Portugal (#11), Croatia (#19), Chile (#19), Galicia (#25), Canada (#27), Italy (#27), Mexico (#35), Iceland (#37), Austria (#38), Spain (#39), Sweden (#42), Poland (#46), Norway (#47), Catalonia (#55), Slovenia (#66), England and Wales (#67), Australia (#78), New Zealand (#89), and the Czech Republic (#92).

This spelling is used in English, French, Finnish, the Scandinavian languages, Slovak, Czech, German, Georgian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. The alternate form Gabriël is Dutch, Gábriel is Hungarian, and Gabríel is Icelandic.

Gabrielle, one of the feminine forms, is English and French. In France, it’s #74, and in the U.S., it’s fallen to #225, after peaking at #46 in 1999. The alternate form Gabriëlle is Dutch.

Gabriella is English, Hungarian, Swedish, and Italian. In the U.S., it’s #61, down from a peak of #33 from 2009–11. The alternate form Gabriëlla is Dutch, and Gabríella is Icelandic.

Gabriela is Polish, Bulgarian, Slovak, Czech, German, Spanish, Romanian, Portuguese, and Croatian. It’s #8 in Romania, #19 in Poland, #29 in Portugal, #30 in the Czech Republic, #36 in Croatia, #50 in Mexico, #56 in Chile, #73 in Spain, and #252 in the U.S. The alternate form Gabríela is Icelandic.

Other forms include:

Male:

1. Gabriels is Latvian.

2. Gabrielius is Lithuanian.

3. Gavriel is the original Hebrew. It means “God is my strong man.”

4. Gavrel is Yiddish.

5. Gavriil is Russian.

6. Gavril is Macedonian, Bulgarian, and Romanian.

7. Gavrail is Bulgarian.

8. Gábor is Hungarian.

9. Gavrilo is Serbian. This form was famously borne by Gavrilo Princip, who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand and started the First World War.

10. Gabrijel is Slovenian and Croatian.

11. Havryyil is Ukrainian.

12. Kaapo is Finnish. An alternate form is Kaappo.

13. Kaapro is also Finnish.

14. Gabriele is Italian.

15. Jabril is Arabic.

16. Jibril is also Arabic.

17. Dzhabrail is Chechen.

18. Cabbrieli is Sicilian.

19. Djibril is Western African.

20. Džibril is Bosnian.

21. Cebraîl is Kurdish.

22. Cəbrayil is Azeri.

23. Crabiele is Sardinian.

24. Gabirel is Basque.

25. Gabrielo is Esperanto.

26. Gābriyēl is Telugu.

27. Kapriel is Armenian.

28. Gabriyel is also Armenian.

29. Gaibrial is Irish.

30. Gavrylo is Ukrainian.

31. Gēbriyal is Kannadan.

32. Gēbriyala is Hindi and Gujarati.

33. Habryyel is Belarusian.

34. Haŭryil is also Belarusian.

35. Jebreil is Persian.

36. Jiboraeel is Bengali.

37. Jibriil is Somali.

38. Kapeliela is Hawaiian.

39. Kâpriale is Greenlandic.

40. Kēpriyal is Tamil.

41. Xhebraili is Albanian. The XH sound is pronounced like the J in Jupiter.

42. Zibrail is Sylheti.

43. Cebrail is Turkish.

Female:

1. Gavriela, or Gavriella, is Hebrew.

2. Gavrilla is an alternate Hebrew form.

3. Gavrela is Yiddish.

4. Havyryyila is Ukrainian.

5. Kaapriella is Finnish.

6. Gabrielė is Lithuanian.

7. Gabriele is German.

8. Gabrijela is Croatian.

9. Gavrila is Romanian. An alternate form is Gavrilă.

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Apple names

Continuing with this month’s theme of names related to the symbols of Halloween and/or October, here’s a list of names whose meanings relate to the word “apple.” Almost all of the names I discovered are Japanese. I tried to leave out most of the Japanese names which are names in other cultures but completely unrelated etymologically, like Marianna, Moana, Mona, and Anna.

Unless otherwise noted, all the names are Japanese.

Unisex:

Chamomile, though a herb used for tea, literally means “earth apple” in Greek.

Hinami can mean, among many other things, “beautiful apple tree fruit.”

Izana can mean, roughly, “thin silk clothing of the apple tree.”

Kanaru can mean, roughly, “poetry/song of the lapis lazuli apple tree.”

Naiki can mean “apple tree queen/princess,” “apple tree radiance,” “rare apple tree,” “genuine apple tree,” “apple tree longevity,” and “apple tree shine.”

Omena means “apple” in Finnish.

Pomaikalani may mean “apple of the heavens” in Hawaiian.

Ringo can mean “apple” and “peace be with you.” Given the strong association with Ringo Starr in the Anglophone world, I’d recommend this more for a pet’s name.

Senna can mean “deep red apple tree,” “a thousand apple trees,” “immortal apple tree,” “transcendent apple tree,” “fairy apple tree,” and “celestial being apple tree.”

Female:

Abhlach means “of the apples” or “plain of apples” in Irish.

Aeracura was a Roman goddess of Celtic origin, associated with Proserpina and Dis Pater. As a Celtic goddess, she may have been an earth goddess whose symbols included an apple basket and cornucopia. The name may mean “copper/bronze/wealth/money mistress.”

Akana can mean “deep red apple tree,” “crimson apple tree,” and “vermillion apple tree.”

Almabikä is a Bashkir name, whose first element, alma, means “apple.”

Almila means “red apple” in Turkish.

Amena can mean “candy apple tree.”

Ana can mean “second apple tree,” “quiet apple tree,” and “apple tree peace.”

Annamomoka can mean “apple tree flower.”

Atsuna can mean “second apple tree.”

Ayuna can mean, among many other things, “scarlet evening apple tree,” “peaceful apple tree friend,” and “second apple tree dream.”

Erena can mean “beautiful apple tree poem,” “beautiful apple tree blessing,” and “picture of a beautiful apple tree.”

Fumina can mean “apple tree sentence.”

Fuuna can mean “apple tree wind.”

Gurina can mean “apple tree and pear shrine.”

Harukana can mean “distant/remote apple tree.”

Harunako can mean “spring apple tree child.”

Hibikana can mean “beautiful apple tree sound.”

Hinako, among many other things, can mean “scarlet apple tree child,” “queen/princess apple tree rainbow,” and “beauty of the apple tree happiness.”

Honami can mean “to protect the apple tree.”

Isana can mean “brave apple tree.”

Izuna is a very rare name which can mean “fountain of wild apples.”

Joanna can mean “to seem like an apple tree.”

Jurina can mean “apple tree profit.”

Kaena can mean “summer apple tree benefit,” “to increase the benefit of the apple tree,” and “summer painting of the apple tree.”

Kamina can mean “birch reality of the apple tree.”

Kanasa can mean “beautiful apple tree blossom.”

Kanata can mean “beautiful, numerous wild apples.” Depending upon the kanji, it can also be unisex or masculine.

Karena can mean “beautiful tinkling of jade apple tree” and “fragrant tinkling of jade apple tree.”

Karina can mean “beautiful village apple tree,” “beautiful summer apple tree,” and “song of the lovely apple tree.”

Keina can mean “apple tree view” and “beautiful apple tree.”

Kenna can mean “intelligent apple tree” and “silk apple tree.”

Kiena can mean “century apple tree.”

Kikuna can mean “chrysanthemum apple tree.”

Kimina can mean “apple tree noble.”

Kiyona can mean “rejoice at generations of apple trees.”

Kona can mean “yellow apple tree,” “apple tree fragrance,” and “small apple tree.”

Konami can mean “beautiful apple tree lake,” “beautiful apple tree fruit,” and “beautiful apple tree ocean.”

Kurena can mean “crimson apple tree” and “summer crimson apple tree.”

Kyona can mean “red apple.”

Madona can mean “round apple tree.”

Mahina can mean “genuine apple tree empress.”

Manaka can mean “true flower of the apple tree” and “ten thousand wild apples’ fruit.”

Manamina can mean, roughly, “love of a beautiful apple tree.”

Marina can mean “true village apple tree.”

Miana can mean “soul of a second apple tree.”

Mikina can mean “tree trunk of an apple tree,” “fruit of a beautiful apple tree,” and “soul of a majestic apple tree.”

Mikuna can mean “beautiful nine apple trees.”

Monaka can mean “apple tree sprout fragrance.”

Monami can mean “luxuriant wild apple fruit.”

Na can mean “apple tree.”

Nabi can mean “beautiful apple tree.”

Nadzuna can mean “to pluck greens from an apple tree.”

Nagiha can mean “apple tree shrub leaf.”

Naia can mean “apple tree compared to Asia.”

Naira can mean “lightweight fabric clothing of an apple tree.”

Nairo can mean “apple tree colour.”

Nakoto can mean “apple tree koto [harp-like instrument].”

Namimi can mean “apple tree seed’s seed.”

Namino can mean “my apple tree harvest” and “beautiful apple tree field.”

Nanagi can mean “calm apple tree.”

Nanana can mean “apple tree vegetable apple tree.”

Nanaru can mean “apple tree’s apple tree stays.”

Natari can mean “gentle, glassy apple tree.”

Natsuno can mean “my apple tree moon” and “apple tree haven field.”

Nau can mean “apple tree poetry.”

Nazuna can mean “apple tree sand” and “apple tree metropolis apple tree.”

Nichina can mean “to know kindness of the apple tree.”

Nina can mean “two apple trees.”

Olma means “apple” in Uzbek.

Paannsee means “apple” in Burmese.

Pomellina means “little apple” in Medieval Italian.

Pommeline means “little apple” in French.

Reana can mean “beautiful colour of the apple tree.”

Renami can mean “beautiful tinkling of jade apple tree.”

Renona can mean “my apple tree command.”

Riena can mean “painting of a village apple tree.”

Rinako can mean “glassy apple tree child.”

Riona can mean “plum, cherry blossom, apple tree.”

Ririna can mean ” plum, pear, apple tree.”

Ritsuna can mean “chestnut tree, apple tree.”

Rubina can mean “to flow by a beautiful apple tree.”

Rumina can mean “water flows by apple tree.”

Runa can mean “apple tree moon.”

Sakuna can mean “apple tree blossom.”

Senako can mean “holy apple tree child” and “world apple tree soul.”

Serina can mean “west village apple tree.”

Shinna can mean “genuine apple tree.”

Shizuna can mean “apple tree’s aspiration to long life.”

Sorana can mean “sky apple tree.”

Sukina can mean “long life apple tree princess.”

Suna can mean “pleasing apple tree.”

Tekina can mean “suitable apple tree.”

Tsudzuna can mean “moon’s moon apple tree.”

Wawana can mean “apple tree peace flower.”

Yanako can mean “long time apple tree child.”

Yoshina can mean “virtuous apple tree.”

Yumina can mean “apple tree archery.”

Yuzuna can mean “grapefruit, apple tree.”

The many forms of Hercules

Though many people would consider Hercules to be too pompous, pretentious, and over the top for real-life usage, there are quite a few different forms of the name. Perhaps they might work well on a fictional character or pet, or one of the foreign versions might sound a bit less strange in the Anglophone world. It’s also just neat to see how names morph into other forms in different languages.

1. Hercules, the most familiar form in the Anglophone world, is actually the Latinized form of the Greek original. Though I normally prefer the authentic Greek spellings, this is one I’m too used to seeing in its historically Latinized form. The variation Hércules is Brazilian–Portuguese.

2. Herakles is the Greek original, and means “glory of Hera.” The meaning is kind of ironic, given how much Hera hated him!

3. Herakleios is an elaborated Greek form.

4. Heraclius is the Latinized form of Herakleios. Two early saints and a 7th century Byzantine emperor bore this name.

5. Erekle is the historic Georgian form. Two kings from the Bagrationi Dynasty had this name.

6. Irakli is the modern Georgian form.

7. Irakliy is Russian.

8. Heraclio is Spanish. The variation Heráclio is Brazilian–Portuguese.

9. Iraklis is the modern Greek form.

10. Ercole is Italian.

11. Ercwlff is Welsh.

12. Hercule is French, and well-known as the name of detective Poirot in Agatha Christie’s mystery series.

13. Erco is Romansh, a Romance language spoken in southeastern Switzerland.

14. Gerakl is an alternate Russian form.

15. Herakliu is Albanian.

16. Herkules is Polish.

17. Iorcall is Scottish, in use since the Renaissance.

18. Heraklo is Croatian.

19. Herkül is Turkish.

20. Herculina is a feminine Latin form.

21. Eraclio is an alternate Italian form.

22. Heraklije is an alternate Croatian form.

Hecate and Hypnos

The Night of Enitharmon’s Joy, by William Blake, 1795

Hecate is the goddess of crossroads, witchcraft, magic, light, necromancy, ghosts, sorcery, entryways, herbs, and poisonous plants. She’s frequently depicted holding a key or two torches, and later on portrayed in triplicate. Hecate was one of the main deities worshipped by Athenians, since she was a protective goddess and bestowed daily blessings and prosperity upon families.

Hecate (Hekate) is possibly derived from hekas, “far off.” It may also mean “will.” Other suggested etymologies are Hekatos, an obscure epithet for Apollo, and translated as “the far-reaching one,” “the far-darter,” “she that removes or drives off,” or “she that operates from afar.” There may also be parallels with the Egyptian fertility goddess Heqet.

Until the late 19th century, most Anglophones pronounced the name with two syllables, even when properly spelt, due to the inaccurate spelling Hecat used in Arthur Golding’s 1567 translation of Ovid’s Metamorphoses.

Other names and epithets of Hecate include Melinoe, Soteria, Trivia (in Roman mythology), Triodia, Propolos, Propulaia, Trimorphe, Phosphoros, Lampadephoros, Kourotrophos, Kleidouchos, Enodia, Apotropaia, and Chthonia.

Hecate’s parents are Perses (a Titan) and Asteria (daughter of Titans), and her maternal great-grandparents are Gaia and Uranus. Zeus honoured her as most high, and gave her many gifts, even though she was descended from his enemies the Titans.

In some traditions, Hecate is a virgin goddess who never married or had a regular consort, though other traditions name her as the mother to Circe, Scylla, Pasiphaë, Pan, King Aletes of Colchis, and demigoddess Empusa.

In the modern era, Hecate is widely-revered by the Wiccan and other Neo-Pagan religious communities, as well as by Hellenists who’ve revived the ancient Greek religion.

Sleep and His Half-Brother Death, by John William Waterhouse, 1874

Hypnos is the god of sleep, and the son of primordial deities Nyx (personification of night) and Erebus (representing darkness). His Roman equivalent is Somnus. Alongside his twin brother Thanatos (god of Death), he lives in the underworld. Traditions vary on whether they live in Hades or Erebus.

Hypnos lives in a large cave, at the origin of the river Lethe, where night and day meet. A number of poppies and other hypnotic plants grow by the entrance of the cave. He sleeps on an ebony bed, and no light or sound ever enter his dwelling-place.

According to Homer, Hypnos lives on the island of Lemnos, which was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy. Later on, Lemnos became Hypnos’s very own dream-island. His children Morpheus, Phantasos, and Phobetor are the gods of this dream of Lemnos.

Night and Sleep, by Evelyn De Morgan, 1878

In The Iliad, Hypnos uses his powers to trick Zeus and help the Greeks to win the Trojan War, at the behest of who else but Hera. This wasn’t the first time Hypnos had tricked Zeus at Hera’s behest, and Hypnos was loath to do it again. The previous time, Zeus was really pissed when he awoke, and went on a rampage looking for Hypnos. Hypnos escaped by hiding with his mother Nyx.

Hypnos agreed to help Hera only after she promised him Pasithea as a wife. Pasithea is among the youngest of the Graces, and the goddess of relaxation or hallucination. Hypnos had wanted to marry her for a really long time, and now was finally able to get her as a reward. He made Hera swear by the river Styx and call upon all the underworld deities so she wouldn’t go back on her promise.

As Zeus slept, Hypnos told Poseidon he could give the Greeks their victory. Poseidon was very eager to do this, and the war’s course of victory shifted away from the Trojans. Zeus never discovered Hypnos’s role in this.

Hypnos, whose name appropriately means “sleep,” is described as gentle and calm, since he helps humans in need of sleep. He owns at least half our lives, since that’s how much time we devote to sleep!

The many forms of Jerome

In honor of the 65th Jahrzeit (death anniversary) of the legendary comedian Curly Howard (Jerome Lester Horwitz; Hebrew name Yehudah Leib ben Shlomo Natan HaLevi), I decided to present the name Jerome in all its forms today. I really, really love this name, both because of Curly and the awesome Saint Jerome.

saint-jerome

Saint Jerome (né Eusebius Hieronymous Sophronius) was a man of letters, and a very popular patron saint of writers. He’s also the patron saint of librarians, Biblical scholars, archaeologists, archivists, translators, libraries, schoolchildren, and students. Many writers choose him as their patron saint because they feel he understands them at a deeper level, with that common bond. (You can read more about him at his Find A Grave memorial, which I wrote the bio for.)

One of my characters, a radical priest from Kassel, Germany, Father Rudi, names his church after Saint Jerome, since he relates so strongly to his love of learning, knowledge, and the written word.

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Most Stooges fans name Curly as their favorite, and it’s really easy to see his appeal. He was one of the greatest physical comedians of all time, and seemed like a really kind, sweet person in private life. He didn’t deserve to die so young, and to be forced to work through deteriorating health until he finally had a major stroke during the filming of Half-Wits Holiday. When I found out Curly had a real-life limp, I no longer felt ashamed and upset about my own limp. He’s my limping hero.

After his major stroke, frequent director Jules White was visiting him at home, and Curly got really pensive and sad for a moment. He broke the silence by asking, “I’ll never be able to make children laugh again, will I, Jules?” He must be happy, in the other world, to know he’ll make children laugh for eternity.

Jerome is the English form of the original Greek Hieronymos, which means “sacred name.” It derives from hieros (sacred) and onoma (name). The name really came into prominence during the Middle Ages, particularly France and Italy, in honor of Saint Jerome. It appeared in England in the 12th century.

Other forms of the name:

1. Jérôme is French.

2. Jeroen is Dutch.

3. Hieronymus is a longer Dutch form.

4. Jeronymus is yet a third Dutch form.

5. Girolamo is Italian.

6. Gerolamo is an alternate Italian form.

7. Jerónimo is Spanish and Portuguese.

8. Gerónimo is an alternate Spanish form.

9. Jerônimo is Brazilian–Portuguese.

10. Geròni is Gascon.

11. Ġlormu is Maltese.

12. Hieronim is Polish and Slovak.

13. Ieróim is Irish.

14. Iyeronim is Russian and Ukrainian.

15. Ieronim is Romanian.

16. Ieronymos is modern Greek.

17. Jarolím is Slovenian.

18. Jaronas is Romansh, a Romance language primarily spoken in southeastern Switzerland.

19. Jeromos is Hungarian.

20. Jeronim is Croatian and Albanian. The Croatian nickname form is Jerko.

21. Jeroni is Catalan.

22. Jeronimas is Lithuanian.

22. Jeroným is Czech.

23. Jeroom is a rare, outdated Dutch and Flemish form.

24. Jiròni is Occitan.

25. Sierôm is Welsh.

26. Xerome is Galician.

27. Yeronim is Bulgarian.

28. Zirominu is Sardinian.

29. Giròlamu is Sicilian.

30. Jerom is Breton.

31. Hieronīms is Latvian.

32. Hieronimo is Esperanto.