The many forms of Benjamin

Benjamin (the name of the only great-grandpap I have memories of) has never charted any lower than #155 in the U.S. (in 1960), and is one of those names which has sharply gone from popular to unpopular and back again. Ever since 1966, when it charted at #133, it’s been steadily rising in popularity (or at least staying stable) each year. In 2016, it jumped to #6, from #10 the previous year.

The name is also popular in Canada (#4), Chile (#2), Australia (#17), England and Wales (#30), Austria (#25), Bosnia (#23), Denmark (#26), Hungary (#60), New Zealand (#5), Norway (#21), Scotland (#51), The Netherlands (#21), Ireland (#58), Finland (#35), France (#67), Sweden (#25), Switzerland (#23), Slovenia (#52), Northern Ireland (#58), and Croatia (#82).

The spelling Benjamin is used in English, French, German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian languages. Variations are Benjámin (Hungarian) and Benjamín (Slovak, Spanish, Icelandic, and Czech). As most people know, J takes an H sound in Spanish, and a Y sound in almost all of the European languages.

Other forms include:

1. Binyamin is the original Hebrew form, as well as Arabic. It means “son of the right hand” and “son of the south.” In the Torah, Binyamin is the second of the two sons of Jakob and Rachel. His name was originally Ben-Oni (son of sorrow), because his mother died from childbirth, but his father later changed it.

2. Beniamino is Italian.

3. Benjamim is Portuguese.

4. Beniamin is Romanian.

5. Benjaminas is Lithuanian, with the nickname Benas.

6. Veniamin is Russian and Greek. This is one of those cases when the accurate Russian transliteration really calls for IA, instead of YA or IYA. Nicknames include Vinya, Minya, Venya, Vena, Venyulya, Venyusha, and Venusha.

7. Venijamin is Macedonian.

8. Peni is Hawaiian.

9. Bünyamin is Turkish.

10. Benchamín is Aragonese.

11. Bendžaminas is an alternate Lithuanian form.

12. Benjáme is Sami, a language spoken in northwestern Russian and northern Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

13. Be’njam is an alternater Sami form.

14. Benjamini is Greenlandic.

15. Benjeminas is another Lithuanian form.

16. Binjamin is Picard, a Romance language spoken in far northern France.

17. Penjami is Finnish. The nicknames are Penna, Penni, and Pena.

18. Pîniamît is another Greenlandic form.

19. Veniamina is a Greek feminine form.

20. Benjamina is an English feminine form.

The many forms of Vivian

I’ve always really liked the name Vivian, which was modestly popular in the 1920s and 1930s, and re-entered the Top 100 in 2014, at #98. In 2015 and 2016, it was #95. Since it’s been steadily rising in popularity, it may very well become the latest Sophia, Ava, Isabella, or Emma, a name once considered too musty and geriatric to use, but now reclaimed as hot and trendy.

Vivian derives from the Latin name Vivianus, which means “alive” (from the word vivus). It came into usage in the Anglophone world in the Middle Ages, as a male name. The last time it charted on the boys’ side in the U.S. was 1933, when it was #905.

1. Viviana, my favoritest form of the name, is Italian, Portuguese, Czech, and Spanish. The alternate form Viviána is Hungarian.

2. Bibiana is either an early form of Viviana, or a feminine derivative of the Roman cognomen Vibianus, which in turn derives from the family name Vibus (of unknown etymology). It’s Spanish, Italian, and Latin.

3. Vivienne is French. The variation Viviënne is Dutch.

4. Vivianne is an alternate French form.

5. Viviane is also French, both as their form of Viviana and the separate name Vivien, which Alfred, Lord Tennyson used as the name of the Lady of the Lake in his 1859 Arthurian epic Idylls of the King. He either based it upon Vivienne, or created it from a misreading of Ninian, the Anglicization of the Welsh Nynniaw.

6. Vivian is English and Scandinavian.

7. Vivyan is a rare English form.

8. Bébinn means “fair lady” in Irish, though is also used as their form of Vivian.

9. Bébhinn is the modern spelling of Bébinn.

10. Bébhionn is an alternate spelling.

11. Béibhinn is another variant.

12. Bevin is the Anglicized form.

13. Viivi is Finnish and Estonian.

14. Bibiñe is Basque.

15. Vivianna is a rare Latin American, Swiss–German, and English form.

16. Vivijan is Slovenian and Croatian, used for both sexes.

17. Vivijana is also Slovenian and Croatian. This spelling is exclusively feminine.

18. Vivienna is a rare English form.

19. Vivyan is another rare English form.

20. Wiwianna is Polish.

21. Viviano is Italian.

22. Vivianos is Greek.

23. Vyvyan is a Cornish male form.

24. Xixan is a male Albanian form.

25. Viiva is Estonian and Finnish.

26. Viivia is also Estonian and Finnish. Nicknames include Viivika and Viivela.

Busiris and Bremusa

b

Busiris, also called Bousiris, is an Egyptian king who features in several Greek myths and legends. He took his name from a city called ḏdw in its native language (pronounced Djedu), a major necropolis and center of Osiris worship. The name thus derives from Osiris, whose etymology is unknown. The original Egyptian form of the name is Asar.

Busiris was one of Aegyptus’s 50 sons, all but one of whom were killed on their wedding night by the Danaides. The myth about the Danaides, the 50 daughters of King Danaus (Aegyptus’s brother), is pretty refreshing! Too many myths feature only huge amounts of sons, as though it’s impossible for anyone to ever have a girl, or like it’s realistic for everyone to only have boy after boy after boy.

Busiris was described by Isocrates as a villainous king and the founder of Ancient Egyptian civilisation. He was the son of Poseidon and Anippe, and maternal grandson of river god Nilus. He had a model constitution which Isocrates used as a parodied contrast to Plato’s Republic. He sacrificed all his visitors, until Hercules showed up during his Eleventh Labor, the quest for golden apples. Hercules escaped his shackles at the last minute and killed Busiris.

Busiris is also claimed as the founder of the line of kings of Thebes (i.e., the Eleventh Dynasty). He also appears as the leader of a revolt in Roman satirist Lucian’s True History, parodies of travel stories.

© Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons / CC-BY 2.5

Bremusa was born in 1204 BCE in Themiskyra, and was one of the twelve Amazonian warriors who fought with Queen Penthesilea during the Trojan War. The Amazons were on the Trojans’ side, and came to rescue them from the Greeks. Before reaching Troy itself, however, Queen Penthesilea needed to purify herself for the accidental killing of her sister Hippolyta.

Troy was in mourning for Hector, who’d been slain by Achilles. Thus, the sight of the Amazons came as a most welcome relief, particularly to King Priam, who promised to reward Queen Penthesilea richly. King Priam put the Amazons up in his palace for the night.

Next morning, the Amazons went into battle and fought as well as any male army, but all but one of them perished. Queen Penthesilea herself was beaten to death by Achilles, and Bremusa was killed by Cretan commander Idomeneus. She uttered a last gasp of life as the spear entered her right breast.

Epic poet Kointos Smyrnaios (Quintus Smyrnaeus) compared Bremusa’s perishing to an ash tree felled by a woodcutter’s axe, with a dry roar.

The name Bremusa means “raging female.”

The many nicknames for Elizabeth

Elizabeth seems to be tied with Katherine as the name with the most nickname forms. Instead of only one or a few, there are numerous choices. Some of these might feel a bit dated, while others are more modern or timeless. There are also nickname forms for the many foreign versions.

1. Betty/Bettie was extremely popular both as a nickname and a given legal name during the first half of the 20th century.

2. Betsy not only is a nickname, but also works well (at least in my opinion) as a full name. It’s one of those nicknames that can go both ways, like Ella or Jack.

3. Bessie was very popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, but was gradually displaced by Betty.

4. Bess was never super-popular like Betty or Bessie, but it was more common in the late 19th century.

5. Buffy comes from a lisped or childish mispronunciation of the last syllable of Elizabeth.

6. Beth seems like one of the most timeless nicknames, not tied to one particular era.

7. Eliza can work as both a nickname and full name.

8. Elisa works as both a nickname and full name.

9. Ella seems more popular as a nickname for names like Isabella, Gabriella, and Arabella nowadays, but it also has precedence as a nickname for Elizabeth.

10. Ellie/Elly/Elli seems a little old-fashioned, but it’s been experiencing quite a comeback in recent years.

11. Elle probably got more popular after the Legally Blonde movies.

12. Elsie is a nickname I’ve always liked, though I know many people think it’s more of a cow’s name.

13. Elyse is a more uncommon nickname.

14. Elsa obviously got more trendy after a certain massively overplayed Disney song and overrated movie.

15. Lisa works as both a nickname and full name.

16. Libby/Libbie is a more old-fashioned nickname, but I think it’s cute.

17. Liddy is also rather old-fashioned.

18. Lise has never been particularly common.

19. Liza works as both a nickname and full name.

20. Liz is like Beth, very timeless and versatile.

21. Lizzie/Lizzy seems like more of a nickname for a young girl. I like how some names have nicknames that work for young children, as well as more mature nicknames one can graduate to (e.g., Lizzie and Liz, Joey and Joe).

22. Lizbeth/Lisbeth/Lisbet is an uncommon choice I’ve always liked.

23. Lizette/Lisette works as both a nickname and full name.

24. Lilibet/Lilibeth is a very distinctive nickname.

25. Lillian may have originated as a nickname for Elizabeth, but is now much more common as a name in its own right.

26. Liana is really cute, both as a nickname and full given name.

27. Lisie is really cute.

28. Tetty is obviously not a nickname I’d recommend in modern times!

German nicknames for Elisabeth:

29. Bettina.

30. Bettchen.

31. Ilse/Ilsa.

32. Liesel/Liesl.

33. Liese. This is also Dutch.

34. Else. This is also Scandinavian and Dutch.

35. Elise. This is also Dutch and Scandinavian.

36. Lilli/Lili.

37. Lies. This is also Dutch, and obviously not a name I’d recommend in an Anglophone country.

38. Liesa.

Dutch nicknames for Elisabeth:

39. Betje.

40. Els.

41. Elsje.

42. Liesje.

Other nicknames:

43. Babette is a French nickname for Élisabeth.

44. Špela is a Slovenian nickname for Elizabeta.

45. Eliška is a Czech and Slovak nickname for Alžběta.

46. Erzsi is a Hungarian nickname for Erzsébet.

47. Bözsi is an alternate nickname for Erzsébet.

48. Zsóka is another nickname for Erzsébet.

49. Elża is a Polish nickname for Elżbieta.

50. Elżunia is another Polish nickname.

51. Jela is a Serbian nickname for Jelisaveta.

52. Jelica is another Serbian nickname.

53. Liisa is an Estonian nickname for Eliisabet.

54. Liisu is also Estonian.

55. Liisi is another Estonian nickname.

56. Liis is also Estonian.

57. Eliso is a Georgian nickname for Elisabed.

58. Veta is a Macedonian nickname for Elisaveta.

59. Beti is also Macedonian.

60. Elzė is a Lithuanian nickname for Elžbieta.

The many forms of Beatrice

This is my third Beatrice post on this blog, since I love the name that much. It’s such a beautiful, timeless, versatile classic, and hasn’t gotten über-trendy like certain other names which were once considered too musty and geriatric (e.g., Ava, Max, Sophia, Emma, Henry, Oliver). I and many of my fellow name nerds were worried Beatrice might suddenly become trendy and shoot up the charts after Paul McCartney used it on his surprise fifth child, but that thankfully didn’t happen.

I also love this name because Beatrice was Dante’s great unrequited love, his muse, his inspiration, his guide through Paradise and the final leg of Purgatory. He wrote The Divine Comedy to immortalize her for all time.

Beatrice is used in English, Italian, and Swedish. Other forms include:

1. Beatrix is Dutch, German, Hungarian, and English. Trixie is the Dutch and English nickname, while Trixi is Hungarian.

2. Beatrisa (my favorite alternate form) is Russian and Georgian.

3. Beatriz is Spanish and Portuguese.

4. Beatrise is Latvian.

5. Béatrice is French.

6. Beatriu is Catalan.

7. Viatrix is the original Latin form.

8. Beatrycze is Polish, and quite odd for a Polish feminine name. It’s the only one that doesn’t end in A.

9. Betrys is Welsh.

10. Beitris is Scottish.

11. Batirtze is Basque. This is a modern, not traditional, name.

12. Beatrica is Serbian and Croatian.

13. Béatris is Gascon. The alternate form Beatris is Medieval Occitan, Spanish, and Flemish.

14. Beatricia is Middle English.

15. Beatrijs is Flemish and an alternate Dutch form.

16. Beatrisia is Medieval Italian, Occitan, French, and German.

17. Beatritz is Provençal.

18. Beatrys is Medieval and West Flemish.

19. Bétry is a local variant used in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of France until the 18th century.