The Ps of Medieval names

Male:

Palni (Danish): Possibly from Old Danish root pólina or páll (pole).

Pangratio (Italian)

Paregorio (Judeo–Italian)

Parsiprestre (Occitan)

Pätar (Swedish): Form of Peter (stone), from Greek root petros.

Predimir (Serbian and Croatian): Derived from Proto–Slavic root perd (against, in front of), and Slavic mir (peace, world) or mer (famous, great).

Predislav (Serbian and Croatian): From roots perd and slav (glory).

Premislav (Slavic): Possible form of modern Polish name Przemysł and modern Czech name Přemysl. Its roots are pre (over), mysli (idea, thought), and slav. Together, it means “stratagem, trick.”

Pribimir (Slavic): “Breaking peace/the world,” “More peace,” “Against peace/the world,” or “To help peace/the world.” The modern form is Przybymir (Polish).

Pribislav (Slavic): “Breaking glory,” “More glory,” “Against glory,” or “To help glory.” The modern form is Przybysław (Polish).

Pridbor (Slavic): “First battle,” from roots prid and borti. It found its way into Danish and Norwegian as Pridbjørn (modern form Preben).

Putimir (Slavic): “Path of peace/the world,” from roots pǫt (path, road, way) and mir.

Putislav (Slavic): “Path of glory.” from roots pǫt and slav.

Female:

Pacifica (Italian): “Peacemaker,” from Latin root pacificus.

Palmeria (Italian): “Pilgrim,” from Latin root palma (palm tree). Pilgrims to the Holy Land carried palm fronds home, to prove they’d gone there. The masculine form was Palmerio.

Pantasilea (Italian): Form of Greek name Penthesilea (to jeer at grief), from roots penthos (grief) and sillaino (to jeer at, to mock). This was the name of the Amazon queen.

Papera (Italian)

Parette (French)

Parnella (English): Derived from a contracted form of Petronel, the Middle English form of Petronilla. Its possible root is the Latin word petro, petronis (yokel). The name fell out of favour after the word “parnel” became slang for a promiscuous woman in the Late Middle Ages.

Pasquina (Italian)

Pavia (English): Possibly from Old French proper adjective Pavie (woman from Pavia, Italy), or Old French noun pavie (peach).

Pelegrina (Occitan)

Peretta (Italian)

Petrumīla (Baltic): Probably a form of Petra.

Petrussa, Peritza (Basque): Elaborated form of Petra. Other forms included Petrissa (German) and Perussia (French).

Piccarda (Italian): “From Picardy.”

Piruza (Italian)

Placia (Spanish)

Plazensa (Occitan)

Plezou (Breton): Possibly “little braid,” from roots plezh (braid) and ou (a diminutive suffix), or “female wolf,” from root bleiz.

Pollonia (Italian): Short form of Apollonia, derived from Apollo.

Posthuma (English): “Posthumous,” given as a middle name to girls whose fathers had died before their births. The masculine form was Posthumus.

Prangarda (Italian): From Ancient Germanic roots brand (sword) and gard (enclosure, protected place).

Preciosa (English, Judeo–Catalan, Ladino [Judeo–Spanish]): “Precious,” from Old French root precios and Latin pretiosa.

Pressedia (Italian): Form of Greek name Praxedes (accomplishment, success, a doing), from root praxis.

Primavera (Italian): “Spring.”

Proxima (English): “Closest, nearest,” from Latin root proximus.

Prudenzia (Italian): “Prudence,” from Latin root prudens.

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The Js of Medieval names

Male:

Jankin (English): Nickname for John (God is gracious). It eventually turned into Jackin, and ultimately became the familiar Jack.

Jaunti (Basque): “Mister, lord.”

Jawar (Moorish Arabic)

Jayaatu (Mongolian)

Joceran (French): From Ancient Germanic roots Gaut (Goth) and hramn (raven). It may also have been influenced by Latin word gaudium (joy, delight).

Joldwin (English)

Jorand (Breton)

Josquin (Dutch, French): Gallicized form of Josken, which can either be a nickname for Joseph (he will add) or Jodocus (lord). This name was borne by venerable French composer Josquin des Prez (ca. 1450/55–27 August 1521).

Jurian (Low German): Form of George (farmer), derived from Greek name Georgios and root georgos (farmer, earthworker). The specific roots of georgos are ge (earth) and ergon (work).

Female:

Jaida (Arabic): “Virtuous, good.”

Jawhara (Judeo–Arabic, Moorish Arabic): “Gem, jewel.”

Jerinne (Flemish): Possibly an elaborated form of Frisian name Jera (a nickname for Gertruda) or a feminine form of Jeremiah (God has uplifted).

Jocea (English): Feminine form of Joceus (lord).

Jocosa (English): Form of Joyce (lord). The spelling was inspired by the Latin word iocosus or jocosus (merry, playful).

Joia (English, French): “Joy,” from Old French joie, Late Latin gaudia, and Classical Latin gaudium. In the Jewish community, this was sometimes used as a secular form of Simcha (joy).

Jolicia (English)

Judur (Moorish Arabic)

Junipera (Italian): “Juniper.”

The Hs of Medieval names

Male:

Hakun (Danish): Form of Haakon, derived from Old Norse name Hákon (high son). Its roots are  (high) and konr (descendant, son).

Haldan, Halden (Swedish): Form of modern Norwegian and Danish name Halfdan, which derives from Old Norse name Hálfdan. Its roots are hálfr (half) and Danr (Dane). Originally, it was used for half-Danish boys.

Hamdun (Moorish Arabic): “Praiseworthy, praise.” The feminine form is Hamduna.

Harik (Swedish): Form of Old Norse name Hárekr, from Ancient Germanic root ha (uncertain origin) and Old Norse ríkr (rich, distinguished, mighty).

Härjulf (Swedish): Form of Old Norse name Hæriulfr, ultimately descended from Proto–Norse name Hariwolfar. Its roots are hariar (warrior) and ulfr (wolf).

Härlek (Swedish): Form of Ancient Scandinavian name Herleikr, from roots herr (army) and leikr (fight, game, sport, play).

Härlög (Swedish): Form of Ancient Scandinavian name Herlaugr, derived from Old Norse name Hærlaugr. Its roots are herr and laug (to celebrate marriage, to swear a holy oath; to be dedicated, promised).

Hasten (Swedish, Danish): Form of Ancient Scandinavian and modern Icelandic name Hásteinn, from roots hár (high) and steinn (stone).

Haveron (English): Form of Harvey, derived from Breton name Haerviu (battle-worthy). Its roots are haer (battle) and viu (worthy). This name was borne by a 6th century Breton hermit who became patron saint of the blind.

Hellenboldus (German)

Hellenbrecht (German)

Hemkil, Henkil (Swedish and Danish): Form of Ancient Scandinavian name Hæimkæll, from Old Norse roots heimr (home, house) and ketill (cauldron hat, helmet).

Heranal (Breton): I obviously wouldn’t recommend this name in the Anglophone world!

Herdan (German)

Heri (Scandinavian): Possibly a nickname for names starting in Herr, or from Old Norse word héri (hare, hare-hearted). This is still used in modern Faroese and Danish.

Hizquia (Judeo–Catalan): Form of Hezekiah (God strengthens).

Hopkin (English): Nickname for Robert. A lot of English nicknames which appear to make no linguistic sense arose from the custom of swapping letters. E.g., Rob became Hob, Rick became Dick, Meg became Peg, Will became Bill.

Humfroy (French): Form of Humphrey and Onfroi (peaceful warrior), from Ancient Germanic elements hun (bear cub, warrior) and frid (peace).

Female:

Halawa (Moorish Arabic): “Sweetness.”

Halhal (Moorish Arabic): “Agitation.”

Hamda (Moorish Arabic): Feminine form of Ahmed (more commendable).

Helissent (French): Possibly a form of Ancient Germanic name Alahsind, from roots alah (temple) and sinþs (path).

Helzbieta (Polish, Slavic): Form of Elizabeth, ultimately derived from Hebrew name Elisheva (“my God is abundance” or “my God is oath”).

Herannuen (Breton): From Old Breton root hoiarn (iron) and feminine suffix -uen.

Herborg (Swedish): From Old Norse roots harja or herr (army) and björg (help, protection). This name is used rarely in modern Swedish and Danish, though it’s somewhat more common in Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese.

Hereswith (English): From Ancient Germanic roots hari (army) and swinth (strong).

Herlinde (German): From Ancient Germanic roots hari and lind (linden tree, lime; soft, gentle; lime wood shield).

Hervor (Scandinavian): Form of Hervǫr, from Old Norse roots herr (army) and vár (woman; truth).

Heylzoete (Flemish)

Heyndrynen (Flemish)

Hodierna (French): From Old French name Odierne, derived from Ancient Germanic name possibly made of elements od (wealth, riches, fortune) and gern (desiring, eager). The spelling was probably changed to resemble Latin word hodierna (present, of today, existing now).

Holuba (Polish, Slavic): “Pigeon, dove.”

Honesta (Italian): From a Latin word meaning “respected, reputable, distinguished, honourable.”

Hudria (French–Swiss)

Hullah (Moorish Arabic): “Dress, garment.”

Human (Moorish Arabic): “Melted snow.”

Hunydd (Welsh): Possible from the Welsh word huan (sun) or hun (sleep).

Husa (German): Probably related to the modern German word Haus (house), as its dialect form is Hus.

Hyssop (English): A type of aromatic shrub from the mint family.

The Cs of Medieval names

Unisex:

Creature (English): “Living being,” from the Latin creatura. Given to infants who survived just long enough to be baptized. At least one such infant, female Creature Cheseman, survived into adulthood. Other forms were Creature-of-Christ and Creature-of-God.

Female:

Calomaria (Italian): “Beautiful Maria,” from the Greek kalos (beautiful) and the name Maria.

Caradonna (Judeo–Italian): “Precious lady,” from the Latin cara (precious, dear, beloved, costly, valued) and Italian donna (lady).

Chichäk (Khazar): “Flower.”

Christoffelina (Flemish): Feminine form of Christopher.

Coblaith (Irish): “Victorious sovereignty.”

Comitessa (English): “Countess,” from the Latin comitissa.

Corelia (Italian).

Crestienne (French): Christian.

Cristofana (Tuscan Italian): Feminine form of Christopher.

Male:

Calandro (Italian): “Beautiful man,” from the Greek kalos andros. The feminine form, Calandra, is a rarely-used modern name.

Chedomir (Slavic): “Child of peace” and “child of the world,” from roots chedo (child) and miru (world, peace). The modern form Čedomir is Macedonian, Serbian, and Croatian.

Conomor (Breton): Possibly derived from *Cunomāros, a Brythonic name which in turn derived from Common Celtic roots *kwon- (hound) or *kuno- (high), and *māros (great). This name was borne by 6th century King Conomor the Cursed, who appears as a villain in Breton folklore. He’s believed to be the inspiration for Bluebeard, and King Mark of Cornwall in the tale of Tristan and Isolde.

Costelin (English)

Cresconio (Spanish)

Cresques (Judeo–Provençal, Judeo–Catalan, Occitan): Form of Latin Crescens, from crescere (to grow). It also means “growing,” from Catalan adjective creixent and verb créixer (to grow). In Medieval Occitania, it was a form of the Hebrew Tzemach.

The many forms of Paul and Paula

St. Paul, Andrea di Bartolo, early 15th century

Paul is the English, French, German, Dutch, Romanian, and Scandinavian form of the Latin family name Paulus (small; humble). Its widespread use in the Western world is of course due to St. Paul the Apostle (né Sha’ul [Saul] of Tarsus).

Paul was #60 in the U.S. in 1880, the year name popularity began being charted. It steadily rose to the Top 20 by 1895, and continued a steady rise over the ensuing decades. Its highest rank was #12 in 1930 and 1931. The name descended just as gradually, only dropping out of the Top 20 in 1969.

Paul left the Top 100 in 2001, and had sunk to #206 by 2016. The name is more popular in Austria (#6), France (#13), and Romania (#41).

St. Paula of Rome; Source

Paula is English, German, Scandinavian, Hungarian, Spanish, Portuguese, Finnish, Romanian, Polish, Dutch, Catalan, and Croatian. The variant form Pàula is Sardinian.

It was a Top 100 name in the U.S. from 1943–74, and currently enjoys popularity in Spain (#4), Catalonia (#8), Galicia (#9), Croatia (#31), Austria (#40), and Chile (#64). Its rank has sunk precipitously in the U.S. over the past few decades. As of 2016, it was down to #821.

Other forms of each name include:

Paul:

1. Pablo is Spanish.

2. Pavel is Russian, Slovenian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Belarusian, and Czech. Russian nicknames include PashaPashenkaPashechka, and Pavlik.

3. Pavle is Serbian, Macedonian, Georgian, Bosnian, and Croatian. Nicknames include Pavo and Pave.

4. Pavlo is Ukrainian.

5. Paweł (PAH-vew) is Polish.

6. Pal is Albanian. The variant form Pál (nickname Pali) is Hungarian. Another variant, Pàl, is Scottish, and Pål is Norwegian and Swedish.

7. Pavol is Slovak.

8. Paulo is Portuguese and Galician. The variant form Paŭlo is Esperanto, with the nickname Paĉjo.

9. Paolo is Italian.

10. Paulu is Corsican. The variant form Pàulu is Sardinian.

Pablo Picasso, 1908

11. Paol is Breton.

12. Pòl is Scottish. The variant form Pól is Irish, and Pol is Catalan.

13. Pavli is Albanian.

14. Pau is Occitan and Catalan. This also means “peace” in Catalan.

15. Poul is Danish.

16. Paavo is Estonian and Finnish.

17. Pauli is Finnish.

18. Páll is Icelandic and Faroese.

19. Pavlos is Greek.

20. Pāvils is Latvian.

Count Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganov, 7/18 June 1772–10/22 June 1817; painted by George Dawe

21. Paulius is Lithuanian.

22. Paulin is Basque.

23. Paulose is Malayalam, a language spoken in India.

24. Paal is Norwegian.

25. Pàil is Scottish.

26. Paili is Malayalam.

27. Pauls is Latvian.

28. Pawlu is Maltese.

29. Pawly is Cornish.

30. Pawoł is Sorbian.

Self-Portrait, Paolo Veronese, between 1558–63

31. Phóil is Irish.

32. Poalla is Sami.

33. Payl is Manx.

34. Phaule is Ossetian.

35. Piöel is Vilamovian.

36. Pavao is Bosnian and Croatian.

37. Boghos is Western Armenian.

38. Poghos is Eastern Armenian.

39. Boulos, or Bulus, is Arabic.

40. Paora is Maori.

Pauline Friederike Marie, Princess of Württemberg (1792–1839)

Paula:

1. Paola is Italian and Spanish.

2. Pavla is Czech.

3. Paule is French. The nickname Paulette was fairly popular as a given name in its own right in the U.S. in the 1940s and 1950s.

4. Pauletta is English.

5. Pauline is English, German, French, and Scandinavian.

6. Paulina is English, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Scandinavian, and Lithuanian. The variant form Paulīna is Latvian.

7. Pála is Icelandic.

8. Pavlina is Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian, and Greek. The variant form Pavlína is Czech.

9. Polina is Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Greek. The Slavic nickname is Polya. Variant forms are Pólina (Faroese) and Poļina (Latvian).

10. Poulina is Faroese and Danish.

Paulette Goddard, née Marion Levy (3 June 1910–23 April 1990), Charles Chaplin’s third wife

11. Bávlá is Northern Sami.

12. Päälag is Skolt Sami.

13. Paulė is Lithuanian.

14. Pálína is Icelandic.

15. Paulît is Greenlandic.