The many forms of Daniel

Daniel has been a steadily popular Top 60 name in the U.S. since at least 1880. Its lowest rank was #55, from 1914–16. It entered the Top 20 in 1952, and in spite of a somewhat fluctuating rank, eventually entered the Top 10. Its highest rank was #5, which it held in 1985, 1990, 2007, and 2008. In 2016, it was #13.

It’s also popular in Romania (#9), Spain (#2), Ireland (#3), Galicia (#5), Hungary (#8), Finland (#10), the Czech Republic (#12), Iceland (#10), Catalonia (#13), Austria (#26), Canada (#23), England and Wales (#24), Australia (#29), Chile (#33), Italy (#41), Mexico (#12), New Zealand (#28), Norway (#17), Scotland (#18), Northern Ireland (#5), Croatia (#63), Switzerland (#39), Portugal (#31), and Poland (#55).

The spelling Daniel is used in English, French, German, the Scandinavian languages, Romanian, Hebrew, Portuguese, Armenian, Georgian, Czech, Slovak, Polish, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian, Spanish, and Croatian. The variant Dániel is Hungarian and Faroese; Daníel is Icelandic; and Daniël is Dutch.

Other forms include:

1. Daniyel is the original Hebrew form, and means “God is my judge.”

2. Daniil is Russian, with the nickname Danya.

3. Danilo is Slovenian, Serbian, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Montenegrin, and Croatian.

4. Daniele is Italian.

5. Danijel is Serbian, Slovenian, and Croatian.

6. Danyal is Persian, Urdu, Arabic, and Turkish.

7. Taniel is Western Armenian.

8. Danielius is Lithuanian.

9. Daniels is Latvian.

10. Dánjal is Faroese.

11. Deniel is Breton.

12. Danail is Bulgarian. The nickname is Dancho.

13. Taneli is Finnish. The nickname is Tatu.

14. Deiniol is Welsh.

15. Taaniel is Estonian.

16. Tanel is also Estonian.

17. Tâniale is Greenlandic.

18. Daaniel is Estonian.

19. Dainéil is Irish.

20. Dánial is Faroese.

21. Daniello is Italian.

22. Danielo is Latin American–Spanish.

23. Danilbek is Chechen, and means “Lord Daniel.”

24. Danilis is modern Greek.

25. Danilos is also Greek.

26. Daniyal is Kazakh and Pakistani.

27. Dänu is Swiss–German.

28. Danyil is Ukrainian.

29. Danila is Belarusian.

30. Daniley is also Belarusian.

31. Danylo is Ukrainian.

32. Kaniela is Hawaiian.

33. Rāniera is Maori.

Danaë and Diomedes

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Painted by the awesome Artemisia Gentileschi

Danaë is the mother of the great hero Perseus (fathered by whom else but the always-horny Zeus), and the daughter and only child of King Acrisius and Queen Eurydice of Argos. Danaë is also credited with founding the now-Italian city of Ardea during the Bronze Age.

Acrisius was really upset he didn’t have any sons, though at least he didn’t pull a Henry VIII by marrying a whole slew of women and then divorcing or beheading them when they failed to produce male heirs. He went to the Oracle of Delphi for help, and was told he’d never have a boy. His daughter, however, would.

The Oracle went on to say Acrisius would be killed by this grandson. Danaë didn’t have any kids yet, so her father locked her up in a bronze chamber. Depending on the story, this chamber was either beneath the palace or in a tower.

Zeus once again couldn’t keep it in his pants, and came to Danaë in the form of golden rain coming through the roof. This golden rain went right into her uterus and created Perseus. Those familiar with Hinduism will recognise parallels to the story of Krishna’s conception following the imprisonment of his parents.

Krishna’s evil uncle Kamsa had been told his sister Devaki’s eighth-born son would kill him, and threw Devaki and her husband Vasudeva into prison, chained to opposite walls, after being told Vishnu is the ultimate trickster, and that any one of those boys could be the eighth if put in a circle. He also murdered the first seven sons. Radiant light poured into the cell, and Krishna was conceived from the power of Devaki and Vasudeva’s thoughts.

Illustration by Walter Crane

Acrisius couldn’t bring himself to murder his own flesh and blood, so he set Danaë and Perseus adrift in a wooden chest. Poseidon calmed the sea, and Zeus saved them. They washed ashore on the island of Seriphos and were taken in by Prince Dictys, brother of King Polydectes. The king had the hots for Danaë, but she wasn’t charmed, and Perseus was very protective of his mother.

Polydectes pretended he was going to marry Princess Hippodamia of Pisa, and ordered everyone to bring wedding gifts. Perseus was held to an earlier boast to bring back the head of a Gorgon, a winged woman with a hideous face and snakes for hair. When Perseus returned with Medusa’s head, the king was among those who turned to stone. In another version, Danaë married Polydectes soon after her arrival.

The name Danaë comes from Danaoi, a word Homer used to designate the Greeks. Other forms are Danaé (French, Czech, Italian, German), Danai (modern Greek), Dânae (Portuguese), Dánae (Spanish), Dànae (Catalan), Danae (Italian), Danaya (Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian), Danaja (Polish, Serbian, Macedonian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian), and Danaée (French).

Diomedes is a great hero in Greek mythohistory, particularly known for his role in the Trojan War. His parents were Aeolian hero Tydeus (one of the Seven Against Thebes) and Princess Deipyle of Argos. Sadly, his dad was murdered when he was only four, during the abovementioned mission to Thebes. By the funeral, Diomedes and the other sons of the Seven Against Thebes vowed to someday vanquish Thebes. They named their little band Epigoni (Offspring).

The Epigoni successfully waged war against Thebes, and many epics (now all lost) were written about this war. Indeed, it was the most important war in Greek history prior to the Trojan War. After the Epigoni War, Diomedes was crowned King of Argos at only fifteen years old.

Diomedes ruled Argos very successfully, and also restored the throne of Calydon to his paternal grandpap Oeneus. He went on to engage in even more heroism during the Trojan War. Though he was the youngest of all the warriors, he was the most experienced fighter and leader. If you haven’t already read The Iliad, I highly recommend the Robert Fagles translation!

Diomedes is derived from the elements Dios (of Zeus) and medomai (to plan, to think).

The many forms of David

David is a perennially-popular classic, working so well on all ages and types of guys. It’s never been tied to any one generation, and can’t be stereotyped as belonging to one particular personality type since it’s so widely-used. There are also some feminine forms of this name.

1. David is Hebrew in origin, meaning “belovèd.” It’s also used in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Scottish, Czech, the Scandinavian languages, Slovenian, Russian, Dutch, Serbian, and Croatian. The alternate form Dávid is Hungarian and Slovak.

2. Davit is Georgian, and the name of one of Georgia’s greatest kings, Davit the Builder.

3. Daud is Indonesian and a variant Arabic transliteration.

4. Dawud is the more common Arabic transliteration. Dawood is also used.

5. Dafydd is Welsh. Nicknames are TaffyDeio, and Dai.

6. Dàibhidh is the native Scottish spelling. A rarer spelling is Daividh.

7. Davide is Italian.

8. Davud is Persian. An alternate transliteration is Davoud.

9. Taavi is Estonian and Finnish. An alternate form is Taavet.

10. Tavit is Armenian.

11. Kawika is Hawaiian.

12. Dovydas is Lithuanian. Davydas is an alternate form.

13. Dovid is Yiddish. An alternative form is Duvid.

14. Daibhead is Irish.

15. Dávið is Faroese. The Icelandic variation is Davíð.

16. Daavi is Greenlandic.

17. Daví is Catalan.

18. Dāvids is Latvian. The nickname is Dāvis.

19. Davido is Esperanto.

20. Dävu is Swiss–German.

21. Davut is Turkish.

22. Dávved is Sami, a native Siberian language.

23. Davyd is Ukrainian.

24. Dawie is Afrikaans.

25. Dawit is Bashkir.

26. Dawei is Chinese.

27. Devassy is Malay.

28. Devi is Breton.

29. Tavita is Tongan.

30. Dawid is Polish.

Feminine forms:

1. Davida is Hebrew, Italian, and English.

2. Davina is Scottish. This is the name of one of my favorite secondary characters, a very annoying grandma and stepgrandma with a shocking secret in her past.

3. Dawida is Polish.

4. Davita is Dutch and English.

“New” names

To mark the approaching New Year, here are some names whose meanings relate to the word “new.”

Unisex:

Addis means “new” in Amharic.

İlkay means “new Moon” in Turkish.

Nukartaava means “his/her new little sibling” in Greenlandic.

Male:

Abhinav means “very new, nascent” in Sanskrit.

Arata can mean “new, fresh” in Japanese.

Navendu means “new Moon” in Sanskrit.

Navin means “new” in Sanskrit.

Neophytos means “newly planted” in Greek.

Neville means “new town” in Norman French.

Newton means “new town” in Old English.

Novak means “new” in Serbian. This is also a surname.

Novomir means “new world” and “new peace” in Russian. This was one of those invented names most popular in the early decades of the USSR.

Nowomił means “new and gracious” or “new and dear” in Polish.

Nowomysł means “new thought” in Polish,

Nýr means “new, young” in Old Norse.

Nýrádr means “new advice/counsel” in Old Norse.

Nývard means “new guard” in Icelandic.

Tan means “new” in Vietnamese.

Tazen is a contemporary Turkish name meaning “new, fresh.”

Toyotoshi can mean “abundant new year” in Japanese.

Xavier is an English, French, Catalan, Old Spanish, and Portuguese name derived from Etxaberri, a Basque place name meaning “the new house.” The Catalan nickname is XaviJavier is the modern Spanish form, Xabier (Xabi) is Basque and Galician, Xaver is German, Saveriu is Corsican, Saverio is Italian, Ksawery is Polish, Ksaver is Slovenian, Serbian, and Croatian, Ksaveriy is Russian and Bulgarian, Ksaveras is Lithuanian, Saver is Maltese, Xaveriu is Romanian, and Xaverius is Dutch and Indonesian.

Female:

Alený means “new elf” in Old Norse.

Árný means “new year” in Icelandic. The Norwegian form is Årny.

Ásný means “new god” in Icelandic and Old Norse.

Ayça means “new Moon” in Turkish.

Dagny is a Scandinavian name which means “new day” in Old Norse. The Icelandic (and original Old Norse) variant is Dagný, and the Latvian version is Dagnija. One of my favoritest secondary characters is named Dagnija.

Eirný means “new peace” in Icelandic and Old Norse.

Eiðný means “new oath” in Icelandic.

Friðný means “new love” and “new peace” in Icelandic.

Fróðný means “clever/wise new Moon” in Icelandic.

Gestný means “new guest” in Icelandic.

Gíslný means “new pledge” or “new hostage” in Icelandic.

Guðný means “new gods” in Icelandic and Old Norse.

Hagný means “new pasture/enclosure” in Old Norse.

Hallný means “new rock” in Icelandic.

Hatsune can mean “new sound” in Japanese.

Hatsuyuki can mean “new snow” in Japanese.

Heiðný means “new and clear” in Icelandic.

Helny is a modern Swedish name meaning “holy and new.”

Hjörný means “new sword” in Icelandic. For obvious reasons, I wouldn’t use this in an Anglophone country.

Hróðný means “new Moon fame” in Icelandic and Old Norse.

Ijeoma means “a new beginning” in Igbo, a language spoken in Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea. This is also the salutation used to wish someone safe travels.

Leikny means “new game” in Norwegian.

Lingný is a contemporary Icelandic name meaning “new heather.”

Magný means “new Moon strength” in Icelandic.

Neaira means “new rising” in Greek. The Latinized form is Neaera.

Newbihar means “new spring” in Kurdish.

Nova is an English name derived from the Latin word nova, “new.” It was first recorded as a name in the 19th century. Besides being a nickname for the below-mentioned Novomira, it can also be a nickname for the Russian name Zinoviya and its Greek forms Zenovia and Zinovia.

Novomira is the feminine form of Novomir. Nicknames can be Nova and Mira.

Nûber means “new sprout/shoot” in Kurdish.

Nutan means “new” in Sanskrit.

Nýbjörg means “new help/deliverance” in Icelandic.

Nyfrid means “new love” in Norwegian.

Sæný means “new sea” in Icelandic.

Signý means “new victory” in Old Norse. The modern Scandinavian forms are Signe and Signy.

Unni is a Scandinavian name which may mean “new wave.”

Vårny means “new spring” in Swedish.

Xaviera is the English feminine form of Xavier. Saviera is Italian, Xavière and Xavérie are French, Ksavera is Lithuanian, and Ksawera is Polish.

Snowy names

Since the season of snow is unfortunately upon us in my part of Planet Earth, I thought I’d do a list of snow-related names.

Unisex:

Aput means “snow” in Greenlandic.

Fuyuki can mean “winter snow” in Japanese.

Setsuna means “calm snow” in Japanese.

Xue can mean “snow” in Chinese.

Xun can mean “snow” in Chinese.

Yuki can mean “snow” in Japanese. Sadly, I can imagine a lot of teasing in the Anglophone world, with people assuming this name is pronounced “yucky.”

Male:

Aputsiaq means “snowflake” in Greenlandic.

Berfan means “snow” in Kurdish.

Berfhat means “snow is here” in Kurdish.

Edur means “snow” in Basque.

Eirwyn means “white snow” in Welsh.

Fannar is an Icelandic name possibly derived from the female Old Norse name Fönn, “snow drift.”

Haruyuki can mean “spring snow” in Japanese.

Hideyuki can mean “excellent snow” in Japanese.

Himadri means “mountaintop of snow” in Sanskrit, in reference to the Himalayas. The name Himalaya itself means “house of snow.”

Masauna means “wet snow” in Greenlandic.

Persoĸ means “snow flurry” in Greenlandic.

Snær means “snow” in Icelandic and Old Norse. Icelandic has a lot more names of older vintage than its sister languages Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, due to its geographical isolation. For this reason, the Icelandic language is also closer to Old Norse than the other three languages.

Snæþór means “snow thunder” in Icelandic.

Takayuki can mean “valuable snow” in Japanese.

Yukio can mean “blue snow” or “green snow” in Japanese.

Female:

Bora means “snow” in Albanian.

Chione means “snow” in Greece. She was the daughter of Callirrhoe (a Naiad) and Neilus (god of the Nile). Zeus made Hermes turn her into a snow cloud. In another version of her story, she was a snow nymph or a minor snow goddess.

Dëborake means “snow” in Albanian.

Dianeu means “day of snow” in Catalan.

Drífa means “fall of snow; snowdrift” in Icelandic and Old Norse.

Edurra means “snow” in Basque.

Eira means “snow” in Welsh. Another form of this name is Eiry.

Eirwen means “white snow” in Welsh.

Fanndís means “snow goddess” in Icelandic.

Gwyneira also means “white snow” in Welsh.

Hatsuyuki can mean “new snow” or “first snow” in Japanese.

Haukea means “white snow” in Hawaiian. It seems kind of odd to me how there would be any Hawaiian names relating to snow!

Haunani means “beautiful snow” in Hawaiian.

Helve means “snowflake” in Estonian.

Ilgara means “first snow” in Azeri.

Kaniehtiio means “beautiful snow” in Mohawk.

Kohakuyuki can mean “amber snow” in Japanese.

Koyuki can mean “little snow” in Japanese.

Kukiko can mean “snow child” in Japanese.

Lian can mean “snow” in Chinese.

Lumi means “snow” in Estonian and Finnish. Lumia is an alternate form. Another form is Lumikki, which is Snow White’s name in Finnish.

Miyuki can mean “beautiful snow” in Japanese.

Mjalldís means “fresh/powdery snow goddess” in Icelandic.

Mjǫll means “fresh/powdery snow” in Old Norse. She was the daughter of King Snær (Snow).

Setsuka can mean “snow flower” in Japanese.

Snezhana means “snowy” in Russian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian. The Serbian form is Snežana, the Ukrainian form is Snizhana, and the Croatian form is Snježana. One of my animal characters is a snow-white Pomeranian named Snezhinka, which means “snowflake” in Russian. Snegurochka is the name of the Snow Maiden who helps Dyed Moroz (Grandfather Frost) with distributing Christmas presents.

Sniega means “snow” in Lithuanian.

Tuyết means “snow” in Vietnamese.

Yukiko can mean “snow child” in Japanese.