All about Lydia

Dissident Russian writer Lidiya Korneyevna Chukovskaya, 1907–1996

The English, German, and Greek name Lydia means, simply, “from Lydia” in Greek. Lydia was a region on Asia Minor’s west coast, reputedly named after legendary King Lydos (of unknown etymology). Today, Lydia is in western Turkey.

The name briefly appears in the Bible, on a woman whom St. Paul converts to Christianity. It didn’t become common in the Anglophone world till the Protestant Reformation.

Lydia was #77 when the U.S. began keeping name records in 1880, and stayed in the lower Top 100 till 1899. Over the ensuing decades, it gradually dipped in popularity, but never sank lower than #329 in 1973. From lows came highs, and in 1979 it rose to #296 from #324. In each succeeding year, Lydia was steadily more popular, till it re-entered the Top 100 in 2011. In 2018, it was #89.

Other forms of Lydia include:

1. Lidia is Spanish, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Georgian, Irish, and Indonesian. The alternate form Lídia is Catalan, Portuguese, and Hungarian.

2. Lidiya is Russian and Bulgarian.

3. Lidija is Serbian, Macedonian, Slovenian, and Croatian.

4. Lidziya is Belarusian.

5. Lýdia is Slovak and Faroese.

6. Lydie is Czech, with variant Lýdie. The last two letters are pronounced separately, not as one.

7. Lyydia is Finnish, with nickname Lyyti.

8. Lide is Basque.

9. Liidia is Estonian.

10. Litia is Fijian.

British suffragist Lydia Ernestine Becker (1827–1890), painted by fellow suffragist Susan Isabel Dacre

11. Livli is Sami.

12. Lutia is Greenlandic.

13. Lutsîa is also Greenlandic.

14. Lýdía is Icelandic. They also render the name as Lydía.

15. Lukia is sometimes used as a vernacular Hawaiian form. This is also their form of Lucia and a nickname for Lu’ukia (of unknown etymology).

16. Lyydi is Finnish.

17. Lydija is Sorbian and Lithuanian.

18. Lydiana is a rare Swedish, English, and Latin American–Spanish form.

19. Lydiane is a rare French and Brazilian–Portuguese form.

20. Lìddia is Emilian–Romagnol, a Gallo–Italic language spoken in Northern Italy.

Italian silent actor Lidia Quaranta, 1891–1928

21. Lidiane is a rare Brazilian–Portuguese form.

22. Lydianna is a rare English and Mexican–Spanish form.

23. Lydianne is a rare Québecois, Dutch, Brazilian–Portuguese, and English form.

24. Lydielle is a rare English form.

Male forms:

1. Lidio is Spanish and Brazilian–Portuguese.

2. Lydian is Scandinavian.

3. Lidiyan is a rare Russian and Bulgarian form.

Candied names

Everyone knows the English name Candy (which doesn’t exactly have the greatest onomastic reputation), but there are a number of other names whose meaning relates to the word “candy.” People who don’t like the scary aspect of Halloween can surely appreciate delicious candy!

Unless otherwise noted, all these names are female. This list also includes words which mean “candy” in other languages, words which sound like real names. As always, these names could be used for pets, dolls, stuffed animals, or fictional characters, not just human babies.

Alewa is Hausa.

Ame (U) can mean “candy” in Japanese.

Amena can mean “candy apple tree” in Japanese.

Caramella is Italian.

Caramelle is Corsican.

Caramelo (M) is Spanish.

Dulce means “candy” or “sweet” in Spanish and Portuguese.

Kandaĵa means “made of candy” in Esperanto.

Karamela is Greek.

Karamele is Albanian.

Karamelli is Finnish.

Kendi is Cebuano, Filipino, and Gujarati.

Keremela is Amharic.

Khandav (M) means “sugar candy” (among other things) in Sanskrit, Hindi, and the other Indian languages. This is also the name of a sacred forest in Hindu mythohistory. The female form is Khandavi.

Labshakar derives from the Uzbek words lab (mouth, lip) and shakar (candy, sweets, sugar).

Lole is Hawaiian and Samoan.

Mayshakar comes from Uzbek words may (wine) and shakar.

Meva means “candy, sweets, fruits” in Uzbek.

Mevagul derives from Uzbek words meva and gul (flower, rose).

Miako can mean “candy child” in Japanese when this is used as a unisex name.

Michari is Bengali.

Mohishakar comes from Uzbek words moh (mouth, Moon) and shakar.

Nammi is Icelandic.

Oyshakar derives from Uzbek words oy (Moon) and shakar.

Permen is Indonesian and Javanese. This reminds me of male Serbian, Russian, Georgian, and Croatian name Parmen, which derives from Greek Parmenas (to stand fast).

Qurbonshakar comes from Uzbek words qurbon (religious offering, oblation) and shakar. The first element bears a strong resemblance to the Hebrew word for the same concept, chorban. This isn’t the first time I’ve noticed unexpected similarities between these languages from two entirely different families.

Şêranî (Sher-ahn-ee) is Kurdish.

Xolshakar derives from Uzbek words xol (beauty mark, mole, dot) and shakar.

Birth order names

I’ve always loved birth order names like Quintina and Octavia, though most people no longer have such large families, nor do they use birth order names very often in most cultures. For whatever reason, Quint- names seem the most common.

Unless otherwise noted, names ending in A and E are feminine; names ending in O, U, and consonants are masculine. U means “unisex.”

First:

Abaka means “firstborn” in Akan.

Adi (M) is Indonesian.

Baako (U) means “firstborn child” in Akan.

Berko means “firstborn” in Akan.

Eka (U) means “first, one” in Indonesian.

Ensio is Finnish.

İlkın is Azeri and Turkish.

Mosi (M) is Swahili.

Parvan is Bulgarian.

Prim is Russian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian.

Prima is Italian and Latin.

Primiano is Italian and Spanish.

Primien is French.

Primo is Italian.

Primož is Slovenian.

Primula means “very first” in Latin.

Primus is Latin.

Proteus is Greek.

Una is Latin. I love this name for an only child.

Second:

Duri (U) means “two” in Korean.

Dwi (U) means “two, second” in Indonesian.

Secunda/Secundus is Latin.

Segunda/Segundo is Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician.

Third:

Fereydoun is Persian.

Kunto (F) means “third child” in Akan. For obvious reasons, I would NOT recommend this in an Anglophone country!

Tercera/Tercero is Spanish.

Tércia/Tércio is Portuguese.

Tertia/Tertius is Latin.

Terza/Terzo is Italian.

Tri (U) means “three, third” in Indonesian.

Fourth:

Anan (U) means “fourth-born child” in Akan.

Catur means “fourth child” in Indonesian.

Raabi’a is Arabic.

Pompey is Latin, probably derived from a Sabellic word meaning “four.”

Quadrado is Portuguese.

Quadrat is French.

Quadrato is Italian.

Quadressa may very well be my own invention!

Quarta is Latin.

Quartilla is Latin.

Quartino is Italian.

Quarto is Italian.

Quartus is Latin.

Fifth:

Enu (U) means “fifth-born child” in Akan.

Quentin is English and French.

Quincia is Spanish and English. The alternate form Quincià is Catalan.

Quinciana/Quinciano is Spanish.

Quincio is Spanish. The alternate form Quíncio is Portuguese.

Quinta is Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Latin, Dutch, and English.

Quintana is English.

Quintavia might be my own invention too!

Quintessa is English.

Quintí (M) is Catalan.

Quintia is Latin and Dutch.

Quintiaan is Dutch.

Quintian is German and English.

Quintien/Quintienne is French.

Quintil is Occitan, French, and Catalan.

Quintila/Quintilo is Spanish and Portuguese.

Quintilio is Spanish and Italian.

Quintilla is Italian, English, Dutch, Afrikaans, and Latin.

Quintillia is English.

Quintillo is Italian.

Quintillu is Sardinian.

Quintijn is Dutch.

Quintina is Latin and English.

Quintinien is French.

Quintinu is Corsican.

Quinto is Italian.

Quintu is Corsican and Sicilian.

Quintus is Latin.

Quinzia/Quinzio is Italian.

Sixth:

Nsia (U) means “sixth-born child” in Akan.

Sesta/Sesto is Italian.

Sextus/Sixta is Latin.

Sixte (M) is French.

Sixtina is Latin, German, Dutch, and Latin American–Spanish.

Sixtine is French.

Sixto is Spanish.

Sixtus is Latin, though it’s truly derived from the Greek name Xystos (polished, scraped). It’s additionally considered to mean “sixth” because it was borne by the sixth pope after St. Peter.

Seventh:

Nsonowa (U) means “seventh-born child” in Akan.

Septima is Latin. The rare alternate form Septíma is Icelandic.

Septime is French.

Septimia is Romanian.

Septimio is Spanish and Portuguese.

Septimus is Latin.

Settima/Settimo is Italian.

Eighth:

Awotwi (U) means “eighth-born child” in Akan.

Octaaf is Dutch and Flemish.

Octave (M) is French.

Octavi (M) is Catalan.

Octavia is Latin, Spanish, and English. The alternate form Octávia is Portuguese, and Octàvia is Catalan and Occitan. I adore this name!

Octavian is Romanian.

Octaviana is Latin and Spanish.

Octaviano is Spanish.

Octavianus is Latin.

Octavie is French and Luxembourgish.

Octavien/Octavienne is French.

Octavio is Spanish. The alternate form Octávio is Portuguese.

Octavius is Latin.

Oktáv is Hungarian.

Oktavia is German. The alternate form Oktávia is Hungarian, and Oktavía is Icelandic.

Oktávián is Hungarian.

Oktavianas is Lithuanian.

Oktavijan is Croatian.

Oktavije is Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian.

Oktavijus is Lithuanian.

Oktavíus is Icelandic.

Oktaviy is Russian, Bulgarian, and Ukrainian.

Oktaviya is Russian, Bulgarian, and Ukrainian.

Oktawia/Oktawius is Polish.

Otávia/Otávio is Brazilian–Portuguese.

Ottavia, Ottaviana, Ottaviano, and Ottavio are Italian.

Ninth:

Nkruma (U) means “ninth-born child” in Akan.

Nona is Latin and English.

Nonius/Nonia is Latin.

Noniana/Noniano is Italian.

Nonio is Spanish and Italian.

Nonus is Latin.

Novena is Spanish.

Nuno is Portuguese and Spanish. The alternate form Nuño is Medieval Spanish.

Tenth:

Decia is Italian.

Decima is Latin. If you’re wondering, the word “decimate” indeed comes from the Latin word for “ten.” When Romans killed their enemies, they put them in a line and beheaded every tenth one.

Decimo is Italian. The alternate form Décimo is Spanish and Portuguese.

Decimus is Latin.

Décio is Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese.

Eleventh:

Dubaku (U) means “eleventh-born child” in Akan.

Duku (U) means “eleventh-born” in Akan.

Miscellaneous:

Achan means “female child in the first pair of twins” in Dinka.

Afafa means “the first child of the second husband” in Ewe.

Aino (F) means “the only one” in Finnish.

Akpan means “firstborn son” in Ibibio.

Alaba means “second child after twins” in Yoruba.

Babirye (F) means “first of twins” in Luganda.

Buyon is the traditional Batonu name for a fourth-born daughter.

Gorou means “five son” in Japanese, traditionally given to fifth sons.

Hachirou means “eight son” in Japanese, traditionally given to eighth sons.

Ichirou means “one son” in Japanese, traditionally given to firstborn sons.

Isingoma (M) means “first of twins” in Luganda.

Jirou means “two son” in Japanese, traditionally given to secondborn sons.

Juurou means “ten son” in Japanese, traditionally given to tenth sons.

Kato (M) means “second of twins” in Luganda.

Kurou means “nine son” in Japanese, traditionally given to ninth sons.

Nakato (M) means “second of twins” in Luganda.

Prvul means “firstborn son” in Vlach.

Rokurou means “six son” in Japanese, traditionally given to sixth sons.

Saburo means “three son” in Japanese, traditionally given to third sons.

Shirou means “four son” in Japanese, traditionally given to fourth sons.

Wasswa (M) means “first of twins” in Luganda.

Winona means “firstborn daughter” in Dakota.

Xwm (SIM) means “second son” in Hmong.

Jane isn’t so plain

U.S. reformer Jane Addams, 1860–1935

Jane, like its male counterpart John, is a timeless, universal mainstay. It’s the Middle English form of the Old French Jehanne, which in turn derives from the Latin Iohannes and Greek Ioannes, ultimately derived from the Hebrew Yochanan (God is  gracious).

The name was #98 in the U.S. in 1880, and stayed near the bottom of the Top 100 and just outside of it for the remainder of the 19th century. Jane went up and down until 1909, when it rose from #130 to #116. The name proceeded to jump up the charts to the Top 50, attaining its highest rank of #35 in 1946. Its last year in the Top 100 was 1965. In 2019, it was #291.

Jean, a Middle English variation of Jehanne, was common in Medieval Scotland and England, then fell from popularity till the 19th century. In the U.S., it was Top 100 from 1906–64, with the highest rank of #12 in 1926 and 1928–29. It fell off the chart in 1995.

Joanna is English and Polish, and became common in the Anglophone world in the 19th century. Its highest U.S. rank was #88 in 1984.

Joan Crawford, née Lucille Fay LeSueur (1904–1977), with Lon Chaney, Sr., in The Unknown (1927)

Joan is a Middle English form of the Old French Johanne, and was the most common English feminine form of John till the 17th century, when Jane rose to the fore. It skyrocketed to popularity in the U.S. in the 1920s, jumping from #127 in 1922 to #5 by 1931–33. Joan stayed in the Top 10 till 1938, and slowly descended the chart. Its final Top 100 year was 1964. In 1993, it fell off the Top 1000.

Other forms include:

1. Johanna is German, Dutch, Scandinavian, English, Hungarian, Estonian, and Finnish. The variant Jóhanna is Icelandic.

2. Jeanne is French and English, and of course the name of one of France’s most beloved native daughters and sheroes, Jeanne d’Arc (Joan of Arc).

3. Jana is Czech, Slovak, Catalan, Dutch, German, Slovenian, Georgian, and English.

4. Johanne is Danish, Norwegian, and French.

5. Joanne is English and French. It was Top 100 in the U.S. from 1930–60, with its highest rank of #48 in 1942.

6. Joana is Portuguese and Catalan.

7. Ioanna is Greek, Georgian, Ukrainian, and old-fashioned Russian.

8. Ioana is Romanian.

9. Yoana is Bulgarian.

10. Ivana is Macedonian, Serbian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bulgarian, and Croatian.

Jeanne d’Arc, painted by Harold Piffard

11. Jone is Basque.

12. Yanna is Breton and Greek.

13. Jóna is Faroese and Icelandic.

14. Ivanna is Ukrainian.

15. Juana is Spanish.

16. Yana is Russian, Bulgarian, and Ukrainian.

17. Janka is Sorbian.

18. Xoana is Galician.

19. Zhanna is Russian.

20. Giovanna is Italian.

Queen Juana the Mad of Castille (1473–1555), painted between 1496–1500 by Juan de Flandes

21. Giuanna is Sardinian.

22. Gianna is modern Greek, and an Italian nickname for Giovanna.

23. Janina is Lithuanian, Polish, German, Finnish, and Swedish.

24. Janna is Swedish, Dutch, Finnish, and English.

25. Ghjuvanna is Corsican.

26. Siân is Welsh. Nicknames are Siana and Siani.

27. Siwan is also Welsh.

28. Seonag is Scottish. Nicknames include Seona and Seònaid.

29. Siobhán is Irish.

30. Síne is also Irish.

German opera singer Johanna Gadski, 1872–1932

31. Sinéad is another Irish form.

32. Jovana is Serbian and Macedonian.

33. Janessa is English.

34. Janelle is English.

35. Jeannette is French, Dutch, and English.

36. Jeannine is French and English.

37. Janine is English, German, Dutch, and French.

38. Žanna is Latvian.

39. Žaneta is Czech, Slovak, and Lithuanian.

40. Teasag is Scottish.

Soviet actor Yanina Zheymo, 1909–87

41. Jenny/Jennie began as a Middle English nickname for Jane, though eventually became used as a full name in its own right and a nickname for Jennifer.

42. Yanina is Russian, Bulgarian, and Spanish.

43. Hēni is Maori.

44. Jâne is Greenlandic. Unlike the English form, this has two syllables.

45. Janissa is English.

46. Seini is Tongan.

47. Hoana is Maori.

48. Joane is Gascon.

49. Ivanija is Vlach, a variation of Romanian spoken in Serbia.

50. Jaanika is Estonian and Finnish.

Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, née Johanna (1820–87), painted 1845 by J.L. Asher

51. Jânotte is Norman.

52. Ohanna is Armenian. I have a character by this name, one of the orphanage girls in my Russian historicals.

53. Hovhanna is also Armenian.

54. Yohana is Amharic and Indonesian.

55. Yuwana is Arabic.

56. Yochana, or Yochanah, is Hebrew.

Diamond names

Though I personally amn’t that keen on diamonds (I prefer dark stones, and ones without long ad campaigns trying to make the masses believe they’re the be-all and end-all of stones), there are many nice names meaning “diamond.” I’ve also included the words for diamond in other languages, where they sound enough like real names.

Unisex:

Almas is Arabic and Persian.

Dorji is Tibetan.

Kaimana is Hawaiian, and alternately means “ocean/sea power.”

Pich is Khmer.

Almaz is Amharic, Arabic, Ethiopian, Kazakh, Azeri, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Russian, and Ukrainian. It obviously is a very rare name in the two lattermost languages, probably not frequently used by native-born Russians and Ukrainians.

Daiya is Japanese. As with just about all other Japanese names, it can also mean many other things, depending upon the characters used, and which writing system.

Heera is Sanskrit, and also found in the various modern Indian languages.

Timantti is Finnish.

Yahalom is modern Hebrew.

Elmaz is Albanian and Bulgarian.

Male:

Almazbek means “diamond master” in Kyrgyz.

Diamant is Albanian.

Dimants is a rare Latvian name.

Sein is Burmese.

Tserendorj can mean “diamond longevity/long life” in Mongolian.

Watchara is Thai.

Xhevahir is Albanian. The letter XH is pronounced like the J in Jupiter.

Olmos is Uzbek.

Female:

Almast is Armenian.

Diamanto is Greek.

Intan is Malay and Indonesian.

Diamantea is Basque.

Adamantine means “diamond-like” in French.

Alimazi is Amharic.

Birlant means “like a diamond” in Chechen.

Deimantė is Lithuanian. It can also mean “intelligent goddess.”

Diamante is Judeo-Italian.

Gaukhar is Kazakh, and can also mean “precious, brilliant.”

Gewher is Kurdish.

Pharchara is Thai.

Almast is Armenian.

Almasi is Swahili.

Elmas is Turkish.