Italian explorer Sebastiano Caboto (ca. 1474–ca. December 1557), engraved 1824 by Samuel Rawle
Sebastian is an English, German, Scandinavian, Romanian, Polish, and Finnish name descended from the Latin Sebastianus (from Sebastia). A town in Asia Minor, Sebastia (now Sivas, Turkey) took its name from the Greek word sebastos (venerable). In turn, sebastos derives from sebas (dread, awe, reverence), and sebas comes from the verb sebomai (to feel awe, to be ashamed, to feel scruples).
As a title, Sebastos became the Greek form of Augustus, the Romans’ name for their emperors.
The name Sebastian, in all its many forms, became very popular in Medieval Europe on account of Saint Sebastian, a third century martyr. The name was particularly popular in France and Spain.
In recent years, Sebastian has become quite popular again. It’s been in the U.S. Top 100 since 2000, when it entered at #81, and it was #18, its highest rank to date, in 2018 and 2019. The name is also #22 in Austria, #34 in England and Wales, #34 in Norway, #51 in Poland, #70 in New Zealand, and #79 in Italy.
The alternate form Sebastián is Spanish and Czech, and Sebastían is Icelandic.
French military engineer Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633–1707), painted 1834 by Charles-Philippe Larivière
Other forms of the name include:
1. Sebastiano is Italian.
2. Sebastião is Portuguese.
3. Sébastien is French.
4. Sebastiaan is Dutch.
5. Sebestyén is Hungarian.
6. Szebasztián is an alternate Hungarian form.
7. Sebastià is Catalan.
8. Sebastianu is Corsican and Sicilian.
9. Sebastión is Kashubian.
10. Sebastijonas is Lithuanian.
Portuguese politican and diplomat Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal (1699–1782)
11. Sebastijan is Slovenian and Croatian.
12. Sebastiaen is an older Dutch form.
13. Sebustianu is Sardinian.
14. Sevastianos is modern Greek.
15. Sibistianu is Sicilian.
16. Sipastiât is Greenlandic.
17. Sevastyan is Russian.
18. Subustianu is Sardinian.
19. Savas’jan is Veps, a Finnic language spoken in Russia.
20. Savaş is Chuvash, a Turkic language spoken in Russia.
Flemish artist Sebastiaen Vrancx (1573–1647)
21. Sebastiani is Swahili.
22. Siöeba is Vilamovian, an endangered Germanic language spoken by about twenty people in Poland.
23. Sivaslı is Turkish.
24. Bościj is Sorbian.
25. Bas’cian is Istriot, an endangered Romance language spoken in Croatia.
26. Baścik is Silesian.
27. Bastjan is Maltese.
1. Sebastiana is Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan, Polish, Kashubian, and Slovenian.
2. Sébastienne is French. The alternate form Sebastiënne is Dutch (and quite rare).
3. Sebastiane is a rare Brazilian–Portuguese, German, and English form.
4. Sevastiana is modern Greek, Russian, Bulgarian, and Romanian.
5. Sibastjana is Albanian.
6. Sebastianna is a rare English and Italian form.
7. Austitza is a Basque name which many believe to be their form of Sebastiana.