The many forms of Ferdinand

Explorer Ferdinand Magellan, ca. 1480–1521

I’ve long been fond of the name Ferdinand, in all its many forms. It’s such a timeless classic, one of those names that used to be somewhat more popular but was never Top 100. Its highest rank in the U.S. to date was #242 in 1882. The name’s popularity moved up and down over the years, and dropped from the Top 400 in 1919. In 1931, it dropped from the Top 500.

Over time, the name continued to drop further and further, with a few short periods out of the Top 1000 entirely. To date, its last hurrah on the U.S. Top 1000 was 1971, at #984.

In France, Ferdinand enjoyed more past popularity, and stood at #59 in 1900. It left the Top 100 in 1929, crept back in the next year, and then fell out again. Its last year with a ranking was 1964, at #407.

In Switzerland, Ferdinand was #90 in 1925, and in the former Czechoslovakia, it was Top 100 from at least 1935–49. Its highest rank was #60 in 1941. In 1952, it left the Top 100.

Ferdinand is used in English, German, Dutch, French, Czech, and Slovenian. The alternate form Ferdinánd is Hungarian, and Ferdínand is Icelandic. It comes from an Ancient Germanic name derived from the roots farð (journey), frið (peace), or frith (protection), and nanth (daring, brave) or nand (prepared, ready). The original form may have been Frithunanths or Ferdinanths.

Fernando Pessoa, prolific Portuguese writer, 1888–1935

Other forms of the name include:

1. Fernand is French and modern Russian.

2. Ferdinando is Italian.

3. Fernando is Spanish and Portuguese. The Spanish nickname is Nando.

4. Fernão is Portuguese.

5. Ferdynand is Polish.

6. Ferran is Catalan. The alternate form Ferrán is Aragonese.

7. Hernando is Spanish. The nickname is Hernán.

8. Nándor is Hungarian.

9. Ferdinandas is Lithuanian.

10. Ferdinands is Latvian.

French composer Fernand Halphen, 1872–1917

11. Ferdinant is Breton.

12. Ferrand is Occitan and Provençal.

13. Fredenando is Basque.

14. Herran is Gascon.

15. Vêrtinât is Greenlandic.

Archduchess Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, 1825–1864

Feminine forms:

1. Fernanda is Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese.

2. Ferdinanda is Italian and German.

3. Fernande is French.

4. Ferdinande is German and French.

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The Zs of Medieval names

Male:

Zakarriyya (Moorish Arabic): Form of Zachary (God remembers), derived from Hebrew name Zecharyah.

Zavida (Serbian): “To envy,” from root zavideti. It was superstitiously used to divert the evil eye from children. The rare modern Serbian name Zaviša descends from Zavida.

Zbignev (Slavic): “To dispel anger,” from roots zbyti and gnyevu. The modern forms are Zbigniew (Polish) and Zbygněv (Czech).

Zeisolf (German): “Tender wolf,” from roots zeiz and wolf.

Zhelimir (Slavic): Hypothetical form of modern Serbian and Croatian name Želimir (to desire peace). Its roots are zheleti (to wish, to desire) and miru (peace, world).

Zierick (Flemish)

Zilar (Basque): “Silver.”

Zilio (Tuscan Italian)

Zorzi (Tuscan Italian): Form of George (farmer).

Zuan (Venetian Italian): Form of John (God is gracious), from Hebrew name Yochanan. The feminine form was Zuana.

Zumurrud (Moorish Arabic): “Emerald,” from Persian root zumrud.

Female:

Zalema (Juedo–Catalan, Ladino [Judeo–Spanish]): Form of Arabic name Salimah (to be safe).

Zaneta (Tuscan Italian): Nickname for Giovanna (a feminine form of John).

Zanobi (Tuscan Italian): Form of Zenobia (life of Zeus).

Zelante (Tuscan Italian)

Zelva (Baltic)

Zezilia (Basque): Form of Cecilia (blind), from Latin root caecus.

Zianna (Basque)

Zita (Basque): “The lord, the master,” from Arabic root as-sayyid. The masculine form was Ziti. This is the source of El Cid’s name.

Zubayda (Judeo–Arabic): “Prime, élite, cream.”

Zubiya (Arabic): “Gazelle.”

Zuria (Basque): “White,” from root zuri.

Zymeria (German)

The Ys of Medieval names

Female:

Yamina (Moorish Arabic): “Right hand, right” or “oath.”

Yanduza (Moorish Arabic)

Yartina (Judeo–Arabic)

Ygnesa (Basque), Ynes (Spanish): Form of Agnes (chaste), from Greek root hagnos. The name became associated with lambs because the martyred St. Agnes was often shown with a lamb (agnus in Latin).

Ypola (Catalan): Possibly a form of Greek name Hippolyta (freer of horses), from roots hippos (horse) and luo (to loosen).

Ysabeau, Ysabiau (French): Form of Isabelle, which in turn is a form of Elizabeth (“my God is an oath” or “my God is abundance”). The original Hebrew form is Elisheva.

Ysenda (Scottish)

Ysentrud, Isentrud (German): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Isantrud (iron strength), with roots îsarn and þruþ.

Ysopa (English): “Hyssop,” a type of fragrant shrub in the mint family.

Ysoria (English): Possibly a form of Isaura (from Isauria).

Yspania (Occitan): Spain.

Male:

Yarognev (Slavic): “Fierce anger,” from roots yaru (energetic, fierce) and gnyevu (anger). The modern form is Jarogniew (Polish).

Yaromir (Slavic): “Fierce peace” and “fierce world,” from roots yaru and miru (world, peace). The modern forms are Jaromír (Czech) and Jaromir (Polish). This name is also sometimes used in modern Russian.

Yaropolk (Slavic): “Fierce people,” from roots yaru and pulku (people, host). The modern form is Jaropełk (Polish).

Yesün (Mongolian): “Nine,” considered a very lucky number representing abundance.

Ymaut (Baltic, Livonian): Possibly “miracle gift,” from Livonian roots im (miracle) and and (gift).

Ymbert (French)

The Ts of Medieval names

Male:

Taki (Danish): “Receiver, surety, guarantor,” from Old Danish root taka (to take).

Tancred (Norman), Tankard (English): Derived from an Ancient Germanic name meaning “thought and counsel,” from roots thank (thought) and râd (counsel).

Tasufin (Moorish Arabic)

Tedaldo, Teodaldo (Italian): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Theudewald, with Ancient Germanic root þeuþ (people) and Gothic valdan (to reign). This is the name of a Decameron character.

Tedrick (English): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Theodoric (ruler of the people), from roots theud (people) and ric (power, ruler).

Temüjin (Mongolian): “Of iron,” from Turkic root temür (iron). This was Genghis Khan’s original name.

Temür (Turkic): “Iron.”

Terkel (Danish): Derived from Old Norse name Þórketill (Thor’s cauldron), from roots Þórr (Thor; thunder) and ketill (cauldron). This is also the modern Danish form. The modern Swedish and Norwegian form is Torkel.

Theodred (English): Derived from Anglo–Saxon roots þeod (people) and ræd (counsel).

Thorbern, Thorbiorn (Swedish, Danish): Derived from Ancient Scandinavian name  Þórbiǫrn (thunder bear; Thor’s bear), from roots Þórr and bjǫrn.

Thorfinn (Scandinavian): Derived from Old Norse name Þórfinnr, with roots Þórr and Finnr (Laplander, Sami). I’m planning a future post devoted to the many names derived from Thor! There are far too many to cover here.

Tikhomir (Slavic): “Quiet peace” and “quiet world,” from roots tikhu (quiet) and miru (world, peace). The modern form is Tihomir (Macedonian, Bulgarian, Serbian, and Croatian).

Todros (Judeo–Catalan)

Toghon (Mongolian): “Pot.”

Trudbert (German): “Bright strength,” from roots thrud (strength) and bert (bright).

Tulir (Danish): Nickname for Old Norse name Þórlæifr (Thor’s descendant; thunder’s descendant). Its roots are Þórr and leif (heir, descendant, heritage).

Tumi (Danish): Nickname for names starting with Þórr/Thor, and containing M as their final element.

Tverdimir (Slavic): “Hard peace” and “hard world,” from Proto–Slavic root tverd (hard) and mir (world, peace). The modern form is Twardomir (Polish).

Female:

Tanguistl (Cornish), Tangwystl (Welsh), Thangustella (English): “Pledge of peace,” from Welsh roots tanc (peace, tranquility) and gwystl (hostage, pledge).

Tanzeda (Occitan)

Taudisca (Tuscan Italian), Tedesca (Italian): Derived from Proto–Germanic root *þiudiskaz (of the people, vernacular, popular). This is also the modern Italian feminine adjective for “German.”

Tegrida (Spanish): Form of Tigris, which may be of Celtic or Gallic origin.

Tekusa (Russian and Slavic): Form of Greek name Thekusa.

Temperantia (Italian)

Tessina (Italian)

Tortula (Italian): “Small twist.”

Tyfainne (French): “Epiphany,” from Greek root Theophania. This name was traditionally given to girls born on 6 January.

The Os of Medieval names

Female:

Obedientia (Italian): “Obedient.”

Öborg (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Scandinavian name Øyborg, from Old Norse roots ey (“island” or “good fortune”) and borg (castle).

Odelina (English): Nickname for a feminine form of Otto (fortune, wealth), such as Odilie, Odil, or Oda.

Odfrida (English): Feminine form of Ancient Germanic name Autfrid, from Ancient Germanic root auda (property, wealth) and Old High German root fridu (peace).

Odierna (Italian)

Olisava (Polish, Slavic)

Olova (English)

Ombeline (French): Feminine form of Humbelin, a Medieval nickname for Humbert (bright warrior). Its Ancient Germanic roots are hun (bear cub, warrior) and beraht (bright).

Oneka (Basque): Feminine form of Eneko, from possible roots ene (my) and ko (diminutive suffix).

Onesta (Italian): Either from noun onestà (honesty) or adjective onesta (sincere, honest). The masculine form was Onesto.

Opportuna (French): From Latin root opportunus (favourable, useful, suitable).

Orabile (Italian): From Latin root orabilis (invokable).

Oradina (Italian)

Orbita, Auribita (Basque): Possibly derived from Auria (golden) and Bita.

Orelia (Tuscan and Venetian Italian): Form of Aurelia, from Latin root aureus (gilded, golden).

Oretta (Italian)

Orienta (French): From Latin root oriens (east, rising, sunrise, daybreak, dawn).

Oriolda (English)

Orqina (Mongolian)

Orraca (Portuguese): Form of Spanish and Basque name Urraca, from Spanish word urraca (magpie), and Latin root furax (thievish).

Orsa (Italian): “Bear,” from Latin root ursus.

Orta (Basque): Possibly a feminine form of Orti, and thus a form of Fortuna. A more elaborated form was Ortissa.

Osaba (Basque): “Uncle.”

Osana (Basque): Possibly derived from root otzan (tame) or otso (wolf).

Oseva (English)

Osterlind (German): From Ancient Germanic roots austra (east) and lind (lime, linden tree, lime wood shield; soft, gentle).

Male:

Odder (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Oddr (point of a sword).

Oddolf, Oddulf (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Uddulfr, with roots oddr and ulfr (wolf).

Odinkar (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Óðinkárr, either from Old Danish root othankar/othinkar (raging, easily furious), or Old Norse roots óðr (rage, frenzy, inspiration) and kárr (“curly-haired” or “obstinate; reluctant”).

Ödmar (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Audamar, from roots aud (fortune, wealth) and meri (famous).

Olivar (Catalan): Probably a form of Oliver.

Ølvir (Danish), Ølver (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ǫlvér/Alvér, which in turn descends from Aluwīhaz. Its possible roots are allr (entire, all) or aluh (temple), and vér (fighter).

Omobono (Italian): Po Valley dialect for “good man.” This is the name of the patron saint of Cremona, Italy; shoemakers; tailors; and businesspeople. He devoted his life to peacemaking and charity.

Ordoño (Spanish): Possibly derived from Latin root fortunius (fortunate).

Ordulf (German): From Ancient Germanic roots ort (point) and wulf (wolf).

Orendel (Middle High German): Form of Old Norse name Aurvandill, via Old High German Orendil/Orentil. It either means “morning star, morning, beam,” or derives from roots aur (water) andd vandill (sword). Prince Orendel of Trier is the title hero of a 12th century German epic poem.

Orm (English, Danish, Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ormr (serpent, snake).

Ormsten (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ormsteinn, from roots ormr and steinn (stone).