The Vs of Medieval names

Male:

Vauquelin (French): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Walchelin, from root walha (foreign).

Vecheslav (Slavic): “More glory,” from roots veche and slava. The familiar modern form is the Czech and Slovak Václav. Other forms are Wenceslas (Latinized), Vyacheslav (Russian and Ukrainian), Wacław and Więcesław (Polish), Ventseslav (Bulgarian), Venseslao (Italian), Venseslás (Spanish), Vencel (Hungarian), Wenzel (German), and Veaceslav (Romanian).

Velam (Swedish): Form of William, derived from Ancient Germanic name Willahelm. Its roots are wil (desire, will) and helm (protection, helmet).

Velasco (Spanish): Possibly “crow,” from a Basque word. The modern form is Vasco, a Spanish adjective meaning “Basque.”

Velimir (Slavic): “Great peace” and “great world,” from roots veli and miru. This name is still used in modern Serbian and Croatian.

Venerio (Italian): Derived from Venus (sexual desire, love).

Vesike (Baltic, Livonian): “Water,” from Livonian root •vesi.

Vigmund (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Vígmundr, from roots víg (battle, fight) and mund (protection).

Vimund (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Scandinavian name Vímundr, with roots  (home, sanctuary, temple) and mund (protection, hand).

Vitomir (Slavic): “Master of peace” and “master of the world,” from roots vit (lord, master) and miru. This name is still used in modern Slovenina, Serbian, and Croatian.

Volknand (German): “Brave people,” from Ancient Germanic roots folk (people) and nand (brave, daring).

Vratislav (Slavic): “To return glory,” from roots vratiti and slava. This name is still used in modern Czech and Slovak.

Female:

Valata (Baltic, Livonian): Of widely-disputed, uncertain etymology.

València (Catalan)

Värun (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Scandinavian name Vírún, from roots  (temple, home, sanctuary) and rún (secret).

Vasara (Baltic, Livonian): Possibly derived from the Latvian word for “summer,” or the Finnish word for “hammer.”

Verdiana (Italian): Feminine form of Latin name Viridianus, derived from root viridis (green).

Verildis (Dutch): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Farahild, from Langobardic root fara (family, kind, line) or Gothic faran (to travel), and Old Norse hildr (battle).

Vermilia (Italian)

Viana (Catalan)

Viçenta (Portuguese), Vicenta (Catalan): “To conquer,” from Latin root vincere.

Vivendòta (Catalan)

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The Os of Medieval names

Female:

Obedientia (Italian): “Obedient.”

Öborg (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Scandinavian name Øyborg, from Old Norse roots ey (“island” or “good fortune”) and borg (castle).

Odelina (English): Nickname for a feminine form of Otto (fortune, wealth), such as Odilie, Odil, or Oda.

Odfrida (English): Feminine form of Ancient Germanic name Autfrid, from Ancient Germanic root auda (property, wealth) and Old High German root fridu (peace).

Odierna (Italian)

Olisava (Polish, Slavic)

Olova (English)

Ombeline (French): Feminine form of Humbelin, a Medieval nickname for Humbert (bright warrior). Its Ancient Germanic roots are hun (bear cub, warrior) and beraht (bright).

Oneka (Basque): Feminine form of Eneko, from possible roots ene (my) and ko (diminutive suffix).

Onesta (Italian): Either from noun onestà (honesty) or adjective onesta (sincere, honest). The masculine form was Onesto.

Opportuna (French): From Latin root opportunus (favourable, useful, suitable).

Orabile (Italian): From Latin root orabilis (invokable).

Oradina (Italian)

Orbita, Auribita (Basque): Possibly derived from Auria (golden) and Bita.

Orelia (Tuscan and Venetian Italian): Form of Aurelia, from Latin root aureus (gilded, golden).

Oretta (Italian)

Orienta (French): From Latin root oriens (east, rising, sunrise, daybreak, dawn).

Oriolda (English)

Orqina (Mongolian)

Orraca (Portuguese): Form of Spanish and Basque name Urraca, from Spanish word urraca (magpie), and Latin root furax (thievish).

Orsa (Italian): “Bear,” from Latin root ursus.

Orta (Basque): Possibly a feminine form of Orti, and thus a form of Fortuna. A more elaborated form was Ortissa.

Osaba (Basque): “Uncle.”

Osana (Basque): Possibly derived from root otzan (tame) or otso (wolf).

Oseva (English)

Osterlind (German): From Ancient Germanic roots austra (east) and lind (lime, linden tree, lime wood shield; soft, gentle).

Male:

Odder (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Oddr (point of a sword).

Oddolf, Oddulf (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Uddulfr, with roots oddr and ulfr (wolf).

Odinkar (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Óðinkárr, either from Old Danish root othankar/othinkar (raging, easily furious), or Old Norse roots óðr (rage, frenzy, inspiration) and kárr (“curly-haired” or “obstinate; reluctant”).

Ödmar (Swedish): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Audamar, from roots aud (fortune, wealth) and meri (famous).

Olivar (Catalan): Probably a form of Oliver.

Ølvir (Danish), Ølver (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ǫlvér/Alvér, which in turn descends from Aluwīhaz. Its possible roots are allr (entire, all) or aluh (temple), and vér (fighter).

Omobono (Italian): Po Valley dialect for “good man.” This is the name of the patron saint of Cremona, Italy; shoemakers; tailors; and businesspeople. He devoted his life to peacemaking and charity.

Ordoño (Spanish): Possibly derived from Latin root fortunius (fortunate).

Ordulf (German): From Ancient Germanic roots ort (point) and wulf (wolf).

Orendel (Middle High German): Form of Old Norse name Aurvandill, via Old High German Orendil/Orentil. It either means “morning star, morning, beam,” or derives from roots aur (water) andd vandill (sword). Prince Orendel of Trier is the title hero of a 12th century German epic poem.

Orm (English, Danish, Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ormr (serpent, snake).

Ormsten (Swedish): Derived from Old Norse name Ormsteinn, from roots ormr and steinn (stone).

The Ls of Medieval names

Male:

Lefman (English): Derived from Anglo–Saxon name Leofman, with roots leof (belovèd, dear) and mann (man).

Leksten (Swedish): From roots leikr (game, play) and steinn (stone).

Lembewalde (Baltic and Livonian): From Livonian roots *lempe (love) and valta (mightiness, power).

Leofhere (English): “Belovèd army,” from roots leof (belovèd, dear) and here (army).

Leofred (English): From Latin root leo (lion) and Old Norse friðr (peace, love).

Lupambulus (German): Latinized form of Wolfgang (wolf path), from roots lupus (wolf) and ambulare (to walk).

Luzio (Italian): Form of Lucio (light), from Latin word lux.

Female:

Laudomia (Italian): Form of Greek name Laodameia (to tame the people), from roots laos (people) and damao (to tame).

Laurensa (Occitan): Feminine form of Laurence (from Laurentum). The Roman city of Laurentum probably took its name from the Latin word laurus (laurel)

Leguntia (Basque): Possibly a form of Leodegundia.

Leodfled (English)

Leofeva (English): Form of Old English name Leofgifu (dear gift), from roots leof (agreeable, dear, belovèd) and giefu (gift).

Leofhild (English)

Leonoria (Italian)

Lianor (Portuguese): Form of Lenore.

Licoricia (English): “Licorice,” from Old French word licoresse and ultimately Greek root glukurrhiza (sweet root). The sub-roots of the Greek word are glukus (sweet) and rhiza (root). This name was used in England’s Jewish community, most famously by Licoricia of Winchester. She was one of the most famous Jewish women and female bankers of her era.

Liliola (French)

Losaneta (Occitan)

Lottiera (Italian)

All about the name Gregory

Pope Gregory I (ca. 540–12 March 604), by Francisco de Zurbarán

Gregory is the English form of the Latin Gregorius, which in turn comes from the Greek Gregorios. The original roots are gregoros (alert, watchful) and gregorein (to watch). Thanks to folk etymology, the name also became associated with the Latin grex (stem form greg), which means “herd” or “flock.”

Thus, there arose an association with a shepherd carefully guarding his flock, and led to the name’s great popularity among popes and monks. To date, 16 popes have taken the name Gregory, tying it with Benedict as the next-most popular papal name after only John.

Austrian geneticist Gregor Mendel, 1822–1884

Because of the many saints, monks, and popes bearing this name, it’s been widely used through the Christian world for almost 2,000 years. In England, it’s been used since the 12th century. However, it had become much more uncommon by the late 19th century.

In 1880, it was #909 in the U.S., and was on and off the chart until it permanently came to stay in 1892. It gradually rose and fell until 1924, when it began picking up speed and moving up slowly but consistently. In 1945, it entered the Top 100 at #96.

Gregory leapt to #56 in 1946, and #33 in 1947. It entered the Top 25 in 1950, and remained there till 1967. In 1971, it again was #25. The name gradually descended, and had fallen to #361 by 2016.

The name’s rise to popularity was due to American actor Gregory Peck.

Gregory Peck, 1916–2003

Other forms of the name include:

1. Gregor is German, Icelandic, Slovak, Slovenian, and Scottish.

2. Grégoire is French.

3. Gregorio is Spanish and Italian. The alternate form Gregório is Portuguese.

4. Grigor is Bulgarian, Macedonian, Eastern Armenian, Albanian, and Welsh.

5. Krikor is Western Armenian.

6. Grigol is Georgian.

7. Gligor is Macedonian and Romanian.

8. Greger is Swedish and Norwegian.

9. Grigoriy is Russian. Nicknames include Grisha, Grishechka, and Grishenka.

10. Grigore is Romanian.

Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (Abbé Grégoire), bishop, politician, reformer, abolitionist, revolutionary leader, 1750–1831

11. Gregers is Norwegian and Danish.

12. Griogair is Scottish.

13. Gréagóir is Irish.

14. Grzegorz is Polish. Nicknames include Grześ and Grzesiek.

15. Grega is Slovenian.

16. Řehoř is Czech.

17. Grigorijs is Latvian.

18. Grigalius is Lithuanian. Other Lithuanian forms are Grigorijus, Gregoras, and Gregas.

19. Hryhoriy is Ukrainian.

20. Reijo is Finnish.

Comedic Romanian actor Grigore Vasiliu Birlic, 1905–1970

21. Reko is another Finnish form.

22. Gregoor is a rare Dutch form.

23. Gergely (GER-gay) is Hungarian. The nickname is Gergő.

24. Grigorios is modern Greek.

25. Girgor is Maltese.

26. Gergori is Basque.

27. Drigo is Mordvin.

28. Grégori is Gascon. The alternate form Gregori is Catalan.

29. Gregoriu is Sardinian.

30. Gregorije is Serbian. Another Serbian form is Gligorije.

The Venerable Dr. José Gregorio Hernández (1864–1919), a Venezuelan national hero and folk figure

31. Guergorio is Aragonese.

32. Hrehary is Belarusian.

33. Kelekolio is Hawaiian.

34. Kӗrkuri is Chuvash.

35. Reigo is Estonian.

36. Grgur is Serbian and Croatian. The nickname is Grga.

37. Gërgur is Albanian.

38. Ryhor is Belarusian.

39. Grækaris is Faroese.

40. Gregors is Latvian.

Grigorios Xenopoulos (1867–1951), Greek writer and journalist

41. Grigorij is Macedonian.

42. Gregoria is an Italian, Spanish, and English feminine form.

43. Gregorie is a German feminine form. The variant Grégorie is French.

All about the names Edward, Edmund, and Edgar

King Edward VI of England (as Prince of Wales), 12 October 1537–6 July 1553

Edward, used in English and Polish (albeit with differing pronunciations), comes from the Old English elements ead (fortune, wealth) and weard (guard). It loosely translates as “rich guard.” Several Anglo–Saxon kings bore this name, the last of whom was Edward the Confessor.

Thanks to Edward the Confessor’s popularity, the English people kept using his name even under Norman occupation. It’s remained popular not only in England, but throughout Europe as well (under various forms).

Edward ranged from #11–#8 from 1880–1933. It remained in the Top 20 till 1948, was in the Top 50 till 1979, and in the Top 100 till 1997. As of 2016, it was #163. The name is more popular in England and Wales (#23), Australia (#52), New Zealand (#74), and Ireland (#95).

Edward the Confessor (ca. 1003–5 January 1066), centre, left panel of the Wilton Diptych

Other forms of Edward include:

1. Eduard is Romanian, German, Dutch, Russian, Armenian, Georgian, Czech, Slovak, Estonian, Bosnian, Ossetian, Ukrainian, Catalan, and Croatian. The Russian nickname is Edik, the Czech nicknames are Edík and Eda, and the Croatian nickname is Edi. The variant form Eduárd is Hungarian.

2. Eduardo is Spanish and Portuguese.

3. Edvard is Czech, Scandinavian, Slovenian, Finnish, Armenian, and modern Russian. The variant form Edvárd is Hungarian. Edi is a nickname form in several of these languages.

4. Édouard is French.

5. Eduards is Latvian.

6. Edoardo is Italian.

7. Eideard is Scottish.

8. Eadbhárd is Irish.

9. Edorta is Basque.

10. Ekewaka is Hawaiian.

French composer Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo, 1823–1892

11. Eetu is Finnish.

12. Duarte is Portuguese.

13. Ebardo is Aragonese.

14. Edouardos is Greek.

15. Edvardas is Lithuanian.

16. Eetvart is Finnish.

17. Yetvart is Armenian.

18. Eduarda is a Portuguese feminine form.

English poet Edmund Spenser, 1552/53–13 January 1599

Edmund, an English, German, and Polish name, comes from the Old English ead (fortune, wealth) and mund (protection). Like Edward, it too remained in use under the Norman occupation, due to the popularity of King Edmund I (922–946).

After the 15th century, it became less common in England. Its highest rank to date in the U.S. was #130, in 1914. The name hasn’t charted since 1997, when it was #921.

Other forms of Edmund include:

1. Edmond is French. The nickname is Edmé.

2. Edmundo is Spanish.

3. Edmondo is Italian.

4. Edmao is Limburgish. The nickname is Mao.

5. Ödön is Hungarian. The nickname is Ödi.

6. Éamonn is Irish. Variant forms are Éamon and Eamon.

7. Edmundas is Lithuanian.

8. Edmunds is Latvian.

9. Edmwnt is Welsh.

10. Edmonde is a French feminine form. The nickname is Edmée.

11. Edmonda is an Italian feminine form.

12. Edmunda is a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and German feminine form.

U.S. writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849)

Edgar, an English, French, Estonian, Portuguese, and Spanish name, comes from the Old English ead (fortune, wealth) and gar (spear). It was borne by King Edgar the Peaceful of England (ca. 943–8 July 975), but fell into disuse after the Norman occupation.

The name came back into widespread usage in the 18th century, and enjoyed an additional boost thanks to a character in Sir Walter Scott’s 1819 novel The Bride of Lammermoor. It was in the Top 100 in the U.S. from 1880–1925, and gradually went up and down over the ensuing decades. As of 2016, it was #342.

In Portugal, the name is #79, and is #263 in France. The variant Édgar is Spanish.

Other forms of Edgar include:

1. Edgardo is Italian and Spanish.

2. Edgaras is Lithuanian.

3. Edgard is French.

4. Edgars is Latvian.

5. Edgeir is a rare Norwegian form.

6. Edgarda is a rare Latin American–Spanish, Italian, and English feminine form.