The many forms of Philip (and other horsey names)

Philip the Apostle, by Peter Paul Rubens

In spite of being considered somewhat outdated or geriatric these days, I’ve always quite liked the name Philip. It’s a solid classic that could use a comeback. Perhaps my positive opinion was influenced by having two friends named Philip in junior high, both of them great guys.

Philip means “friend/lover of horses,” from Greek philos (lover, friend) and hippos (horse). One of the Twelve Apostles, Philip was originally much more popular among Eastern Christians. In the Middle Ages, it became more common in the West.

Philip sank in popularity in the Anglophone world in the 17th century, thanks to King Felipe II of Spain launching the Armada against England. It became popular again in the 19th century.

Infante Felipe of Spain, Duke of Parma (1720–1765), by Louis-Michel van Loo

The one-L spelling was in the U.S. Top 100 from 1880–1971, and again from 1973–88. It then began a slow decline, though in recent years, it’s gradually begun moving up. Its highest rank to date was #52 in 1941.

In 2017, it was #424 in the U.S.; #414 in England and Wales; #81 in Norway; #74 in Sweden; #39 in Denmark; and #206 in The Netherlands.

The two-L variant has always been less popular than the one-L, though it was Top 200 in the U.S. from 1880–1936, and Top 100 from 1937–91. Its highest rank to date was #64 in 1950. In 2017, it was #424 (same as the one-L spelling).

King Philippe IV the Fair of France (1268–1314), by Jean du Tillet

Other forms include:

1. Felipe is Spanish and Portuguese.

2. Felip is Catalan.

3. Philippe is French.

4. Philipp is German.

5. Filip is Romanian, Serbian, Slovenian, Polish, Czech, Dutch, Scandinavian, Bulgarian, Slovak, Macedonian, Hungarian, Finnish, and Croatian.

6. Filipp is Russian.

7. Pylyp is Ukrainian.

8. Pilypas is Lithuanian.

9. Filips is Latvian.

10. Filippo is Italian.

King Felipe II (1527–1598), by Tinian

11. Vilppu is Finnish.

12. Pilib is Irish.

13. Filib is Scottish.

14. Fülöp is Hungarian.

15. Filippos is Greek.

16. Piripi is Maori.

17. Filpa is Sami.

18. Phélip is Gascon.

19. Phillippus is Afrikaans.

20. Pilibbos is Armenian.

21. Pilipe is Georgian.

22. Ph’lip is Jèrriais.

Queen Filipa of Portugal (1360–1415), by António de Holanda

Feminine forms:

1. Philippa is English and German.

2. Philipa is English.

3. Phillipa is English.

4. Filipa is Portuguese.

5. Filippa is Italian, Greek, and Swedish.

6. Philippine is French.

7. Felipa is Spanish.

8. Filipina is Polish.

9. Filippina is Italian.

French poet, historian, and soldier Théodore-Agrippa d’Aubigné, 1552–1630

Other horse-related names:

Unisex:

1. Agrippa is a Latin name which may mean “wild horse,” from Greek roots agrios (wild) and hippos. Other forms include Agrippina (a Latin diminutive) and Agrafena (Russian, feminine only).

Female:

1. Alkippe comes from Greek alke (strength) and hippos.

2. Eowyn means “horse joy” in Old English, from eoh (horse) and wyn (friend). As most people know, this was invented for LOTR.

3. Epona means “horse” in Gaulish, from epos. She was the Celtic goddess of horses.

4. Jorunn means “horse love” in Norwegian, from Ancient Scandinavian jór (horse) and unna (love).

5. Rosalind means “tender/soft/flexible horse” in English, from Germanic hros (horse) and lind.

Rosamund Clifford, mistress of King Henry II of England (before 1150–ca. 1176), by John William Waterhouse

6. Rosamund means “horse protection” in English, from Germanic hros and mund.

7. Hippolyte means “freer of horses” in Greek, from hippos and luo (to loosen). Other forms include Hippolyta (Latin) and Ippolita (Russian).

8. Farnaspa means “horse glory” in Ancient Persian.

9. Lysippe means “she who lets loose the horses” in Greek.

10. Zeuxippe means “bridled horse” in Greek.

Hippocrates, ca. 460–370 BCE

Male: 

1. Archippos means “master of horses” in Greek, from archos and hippos.

2. Ashwin means “possessed of horses” in Hindi and several other Indian languages.

3. Eachann means “brown horse” in Gaelic, from each (horse) and donn (brown).

4. Hippocrates means “horse power” in Greek, from hippos and kratos (power).

5. Hippolytos is the male form of Hippolyta. Other forms include Ippolit (Russian), Ippolito (Italian), Hippolyte (French), Hipólito (Spanish and Portuguese), and Hipolit (Polish).

6. Tasunka means “his horse” in Sioux.

7. Xanthippos means “yellow horse” in Greek, from xanthos (yellow) and hippos.

8. Ajwad means “horses” in Arabic.

9. Alabandos means “horse victory” in Greek.

10. Aristippos means “the best horse” in Greek.

Hipólito José da Costa Pereira Furtado de Mendonça (1774–1823), Father of the Brazilian Press

11. Chrysippos means “horse of gold” in Greek.

12. Dexippos means “horse reception” or “to receive horses” in Greek.

13. Lysippos is the male form of Lysippe.

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The Ys of Medieval names

Female:

Yamina (Moorish Arabic): “Right hand, right” or “oath.”

Yanduza (Moorish Arabic)

Yartina (Judeo–Arabic)

Ygnesa (Basque), Ynes (Spanish): Form of Agnes (chaste), from Greek root hagnos. The name became associated with lambs because the martyred St. Agnes was often shown with a lamb (agnus in Latin).

Ypola (Catalan): Possibly a form of Greek name Hippolyta (freer of horses), from roots hippos (horse) and luo (to loosen).

Ysabeau, Ysabiau (French): Form of Isabelle, which in turn is a form of Elizabeth (“my God is an oath” or “my God is abundance”). The original Hebrew form is Elisheva.

Ysenda (Scottish)

Ysentrud, Isentrud (German): Derived from Ancient Germanic name Isantrud (iron strength), with roots îsarn and þruþ.

Ysopa (English): “Hyssop,” a type of fragrant shrub in the mint family.

Ysoria (English): Possibly a form of Isaura (from Isauria).

Yspania (Occitan): Spain.

Male:

Yarognev (Slavic): “Fierce anger,” from roots yaru (energetic, fierce) and gnyevu (anger). The modern form is Jarogniew (Polish).

Yaromir (Slavic): “Fierce peace” and “fierce world,” from roots yaru and miru (world, peace). The modern forms are Jaromír (Czech) and Jaromir (Polish). This name is also sometimes used in modern Russian.

Yaropolk (Slavic): “Fierce people,” from roots yaru and pulku (people, host). The modern form is Jaropełk (Polish).

Yesün (Mongolian): “Nine,” considered a very lucky number representing abundance.

Ymaut (Baltic, Livonian): Possibly “miracle gift,” from Livonian roots im (miracle) and and (gift).

Ymbert (French)

All about the name Gregory

Pope Gregory I (ca. 540–12 March 604), by Francisco de Zurbarán

Gregory is the English form of the Latin Gregorius, which in turn comes from the Greek Gregorios. The original roots are gregoros (alert, watchful) and gregorein (to watch). Thanks to folk etymology, the name also became associated with the Latin grex (stem form greg), which means “herd” or “flock.”

Thus, there arose an association with a shepherd carefully guarding his flock, and led to the name’s great popularity among popes and monks. To date, 16 popes have taken the name Gregory, tying it with Benedict as the next-most popular papal name after only John.

Austrian geneticist Gregor Mendel, 1822–1884

Because of the many saints, monks, and popes bearing this name, it’s been widely used through the Christian world for almost 2,000 years. In England, it’s been used since the 12th century. However, it had become much more uncommon by the late 19th century.

In 1880, it was #909 in the U.S., and was on and off the chart until it permanently came to stay in 1892. It gradually rose and fell until 1924, when it began picking up speed and moving up slowly but consistently. In 1945, it entered the Top 100 at #96.

Gregory leapt to #56 in 1946, and #33 in 1947. It entered the Top 25 in 1950, and remained there till 1967. In 1971, it again was #25. The name gradually descended, and had fallen to #361 by 2016.

The name’s rise to popularity was due to American actor Gregory Peck.

Gregory Peck, 1916–2003

Other forms of the name include:

1. Gregor is German, Icelandic, Slovak, Slovenian, and Scottish.

2. Grégoire is French.

3. Gregorio is Spanish and Italian. The alternate form Gregório is Portuguese.

4. Grigor is Bulgarian, Macedonian, Eastern Armenian, Albanian, and Welsh.

5. Krikor is Western Armenian.

6. Grigol is Georgian.

7. Gligor is Macedonian and Romanian.

8. Greger is Swedish and Norwegian.

9. Grigoriy is Russian. Nicknames include Grisha, Grishechka, and Grishenka.

10. Grigore is Romanian.

Henri Jean-Baptiste Grégoire (Abbé Grégoire), bishop, politician, reformer, abolitionist, revolutionary leader, 1750–1831

11. Gregers is Norwegian and Danish.

12. Griogair is Scottish.

13. Gréagóir is Irish.

14. Grzegorz is Polish. Nicknames include Grześ and Grzesiek.

15. Grega is Slovenian.

16. Řehoř is Czech.

17. Grigorijs is Latvian.

18. Grigalius is Lithuanian. Other Lithuanian forms are Grigorijus, Gregoras, and Gregas.

19. Hryhoriy is Ukrainian.

20. Reijo is Finnish.

Comedic Romanian actor Grigore Vasiliu Birlic, 1905–1970

21. Reko is another Finnish form.

22. Gregoor is a rare Dutch form.

23. Gergely (GER-gay) is Hungarian. The nickname is Gergő.

24. Grigorios is modern Greek.

25. Girgor is Maltese.

26. Gergori is Basque.

27. Drigo is Mordvin.

28. Grégori is Gascon. The alternate form Gregori is Catalan.

29. Gregoriu is Sardinian.

30. Gregorije is Serbian. Another Serbian form is Gligorije.

The Venerable Dr. José Gregorio Hernández (1864–1919), a Venezuelan national hero and folk figure

31. Guergorio is Aragonese.

32. Hrehary is Belarusian.

33. Kelekolio is Hawaiian.

34. Kӗrkuri is Chuvash.

35. Reigo is Estonian.

36. Grgur is Serbian and Croatian. The nickname is Grga.

37. Gërgur is Albanian.

38. Ryhor is Belarusian.

39. Grækaris is Faroese.

40. Gregors is Latvian.

Grigorios Xenopoulos (1867–1951), Greek writer and journalist

41. Grigorij is Macedonian.

42. Gregoria is an Italian, Spanish, and English feminine form.

43. Gregorie is a German feminine form. The variant Grégorie is French.

All about the names Edward, Edmund, and Edgar

King Edward VI of England (as Prince of Wales), 12 October 1537–6 July 1553

Edward, used in English and Polish (albeit with differing pronunciations), comes from the Old English elements ead (fortune, wealth) and weard (guard). It loosely translates as “rich guard.” Several Anglo–Saxon kings bore this name, the last of whom was Edward the Confessor.

Thanks to Edward the Confessor’s popularity, the English people kept using his name even under Norman occupation. It’s remained popular not only in England, but throughout Europe as well (under various forms).

Edward ranged from #11–#8 from 1880–1933. It remained in the Top 20 till 1948, was in the Top 50 till 1979, and in the Top 100 till 1997. As of 2016, it was #163. The name is more popular in England and Wales (#23), Australia (#52), New Zealand (#74), and Ireland (#95).

Edward the Confessor (ca. 1003–5 January 1066), centre, left panel of the Wilton Diptych

Other forms of Edward include:

1. Eduard is Romanian, German, Dutch, Russian, Armenian, Georgian, Czech, Slovak, Estonian, Bosnian, Ossetian, Ukrainian, Catalan, and Croatian. The Russian nickname is Edik, the Czech nicknames are Edík and Eda, and the Croatian nickname is Edi. The variant form Eduárd is Hungarian.

2. Eduardo is Spanish and Portuguese.

3. Edvard is Czech, Scandinavian, Slovenian, Finnish, Armenian, and modern Russian. The variant form Edvárd is Hungarian. Edi is a nickname form in several of these languages.

4. Édouard is French.

5. Eduards is Latvian.

6. Edoardo is Italian.

7. Eideard is Scottish.

8. Eadbhárd is Irish.

9. Edorta is Basque.

10. Ekewaka is Hawaiian.

French composer Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo, 1823–1892

11. Eetu is Finnish.

12. Duarte is Portuguese.

13. Ebardo is Aragonese.

14. Edouardos is Greek.

15. Edvardas is Lithuanian.

16. Eetvart is Finnish.

17. Yetvart is Armenian.

18. Eduarda is a Portuguese feminine form.

English poet Edmund Spenser, 1552/53–13 January 1599

Edmund, an English, German, and Polish name, comes from the Old English ead (fortune, wealth) and mund (protection). Like Edward, it too remained in use under the Norman occupation, due to the popularity of King Edmund I (922–946).

After the 15th century, it became less common in England. Its highest rank to date in the U.S. was #130, in 1914. The name hasn’t charted since 1997, when it was #921.

Other forms of Edmund include:

1. Edmond is French. The nickname is Edmé.

2. Edmundo is Spanish.

3. Edmondo is Italian.

4. Edmao is Limburgish. The nickname is Mao.

5. Ödön is Hungarian. The nickname is Ödi.

6. Éamonn is Irish. Variant forms are Éamon and Eamon.

7. Edmundas is Lithuanian.

8. Edmunds is Latvian.

9. Edmwnt is Welsh.

10. Edmonde is a French feminine form. The nickname is Edmée.

11. Edmonda is an Italian feminine form.

12. Edmunda is a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and German feminine form.

U.S. writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849)

Edgar, an English, French, Estonian, Portuguese, and Spanish name, comes from the Old English ead (fortune, wealth) and gar (spear). It was borne by King Edgar the Peaceful of England (ca. 943–8 July 975), but fell into disuse after the Norman occupation.

The name came back into widespread usage in the 18th century, and enjoyed an additional boost thanks to a character in Sir Walter Scott’s 1819 novel The Bride of Lammermoor. It was in the Top 100 in the U.S. from 1880–1925, and gradually went up and down over the ensuing decades. As of 2016, it was #342.

In Portugal, the name is #79, and is #263 in France. The variant Édgar is Spanish.

Other forms of Edgar include:

1. Edgardo is Italian and Spanish.

2. Edgaras is Lithuanian.

3. Edgard is French.

4. Edgars is Latvian.

5. Edgeir is a rare Norwegian form.

6. Edgarda is a rare Latin American–Spanish, Italian, and English feminine form.

The many forms of Paul and Paula

St. Paul, Andrea di Bartolo, early 15th century

Paul is the English, French, German, Dutch, Romanian, and Scandinavian form of the Latin family name Paulus (small; humble). Its widespread use in the Western world is of course due to St. Paul the Apostle (né Sha’ul [Saul] of Tarsus).

Paul was #60 in the U.S. in 1880, the year name popularity began being charted. It steadily rose to the Top 20 by 1895, and continued a steady rise over the ensuing decades. Its highest rank was #12 in 1930 and 1931. The name descended just as gradually, only dropping out of the Top 20 in 1969.

Paul left the Top 100 in 2001, and had sunk to #206 by 2016. The name is more popular in Austria (#6), France (#13), and Romania (#41).

St. Paula of Rome; Source

Paula is English, German, Scandinavian, Hungarian, Spanish, Portuguese, Finnish, Romanian, Polish, Dutch, Catalan, and Croatian. The variant form Pàula is Sardinian.

It was a Top 100 name in the U.S. from 1943–74, and currently enjoys popularity in Spain (#4), Catalonia (#8), Galicia (#9), Croatia (#31), Austria (#40), and Chile (#64). Its rank has sunk precipitously in the U.S. over the past few decades. As of 2016, it was down to #821.

Other forms of each name include:

Paul:

1. Pablo is Spanish.

2. Pavel is Russian, Slovenian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Belarusian, and Czech. Russian nicknames include PashaPashenkaPashechka, and Pavlik.

3. Pavle is Serbian, Macedonian, Georgian, Bosnian, and Croatian. Nicknames include Pavo and Pave.

4. Pavlo is Ukrainian.

5. Paweł (PAH-vew) is Polish.

6. Pal is Albanian. The variant form Pál (nickname Pali) is Hungarian. Another variant, Pàl, is Scottish, and Pål is Norwegian and Swedish.

7. Pavol is Slovak.

8. Paulo is Portuguese and Galician. The variant form Paŭlo is Esperanto, with the nickname Paĉjo.

9. Paolo is Italian.

10. Paulu is Corsican. The variant form Pàulu is Sardinian.

Pablo Picasso, 1908

11. Paol is Breton.

12. Pòl is Scottish. The variant form Pól is Irish, and Pol is Catalan.

13. Pavli is Albanian.

14. Pau is Occitan and Catalan. This also means “peace” in Catalan.

15. Poul is Danish.

16. Paavo is Estonian and Finnish.

17. Pauli is Finnish.

18. Páll is Icelandic and Faroese.

19. Pavlos is Greek.

20. Pāvils is Latvian.

Count Pavel Aleksandrovich Stroganov, 7/18 June 1772–10/22 June 1817; painted by George Dawe

21. Paulius is Lithuanian.

22. Paulin is Basque.

23. Paulose is Malayalam, a language spoken in India.

24. Paal is Norwegian.

25. Pàil is Scottish.

26. Paili is Malayalam.

27. Pauls is Latvian.

28. Pawlu is Maltese.

29. Pawly is Cornish.

30. Pawoł is Sorbian.

Self-Portrait, Paolo Veronese, between 1558–63

31. Phóil is Irish.

32. Poalla is Sami.

33. Payl is Manx.

34. Phaule is Ossetian.

35. Piöel is Vilamovian.

36. Pavao is Bosnian and Croatian.

37. Boghos is Western Armenian.

38. Poghos is Eastern Armenian.

39. Boulos, or Bulus, is Arabic.

40. Paora is Maori.

Pauline Friederike Marie, Princess of Württemberg (1792–1839)

Paula:

1. Paola is Italian and Spanish.

2. Pavla is Czech.

3. Paule is French. The nickname Paulette was fairly popular as a given name in its own right in the U.S. in the 1940s and 1950s.

4. Pauletta is English.

5. Pauline is English, German, French, and Scandinavian.

6. Paulina is English, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Scandinavian, and Lithuanian. The variant form Paulīna is Latvian.

7. Pála is Icelandic.

8. Pavlina is Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian, and Greek. The variant form Pavlína is Czech.

9. Polina is Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, and Greek. The Slavic nickname is Polya. Variant forms are Pólina (Faroese) and Poļina (Latvian).

10. Poulina is Faroese and Danish.

Paulette Goddard, née Marion Levy (3 June 1910–23 April 1990), Charles Chaplin’s third wife

11. Bávlá is Northern Sami.

12. Päälag is Skolt Sami.

13. Paulė is Lithuanian.

14. Pálína is Icelandic.

15. Paulît is Greenlandic.